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What are the two general types of membranes that eukaryotic cells have?
- 1. Plasma/ cell membrane
- 2. organelle membrane
What are the two main functions of the cell/plasma membrane?
- 1. Provide a barrier inside and outside of the cell
- 2. Determine/ Decide what goes inside and outside
Where is the cytosol found?
In between the Plasma Membrane and Organelles
Where are chromosomes located in eukaryotic cells?
In the Nucleus
What is the function of ribosomes and where are they located in eukaryotic cells (there are up to four locations!)?
Ribosomes are little cell factories that use genetic information to make cell proteins.
Ribosomes are found free in cytosol and also, are bound in the membrane and are in mitochondria.
For ribosomes in the cytosol, what is the difference in types of proteins made by free and membrane-bound ribosomes?
- Free ribosomes make regular cell proteins while membrane-bound ribosomes
- make membrane proteins that the cell will secrete/ export.
Describe the overall function(s) of the endomembrane system.
Produce cell membranes and any substances the cell will secrete/ export.
Give three examples of specialized animal cells and their unique endomembrane products.
- - pancreas makes insulin
- - small intestine cells make digestive enzymes
- -testes make testosterone
- -liver make serum protein
- -ovaries make estrogen
What does the plant cell central vacuole and the cell wall do together for the cell?
Provide turgor pressure which gives the cell rigidity
What other function does the central vacuole have besides providing trugor pressure?
Storage sacs store water, starch and waste.
What is the function of mitochondria?
Carry out cellular respiration-use oxygen to extract energy from food and package it into ATP.
What part of the mitochondrion is important for carrying out its function?
How do (aerobic) prokaryotes carry out the function mitochondria do in eukaryotes?
They use a specialized region of their plasma membrane.
What is the function of chloroplasts?
Convert light energy to chemical energy & make food molecules- thru the process of photosynthesis
Which of the following organelles do your cells need to stay alive this minute: chloroplasts or mitochondria?
Explain how the other organelle in c)(chloroplasts) is completely useless to your individual cells this minute, but vital to you in general.
- Chloroplasts are useless to human individual cells because they are not
- found in humans. However, chloroplasts are in plants and without
- chloroplasts plants could not provide humans with oxygen and plants
- create 100% of our food source, so yes overall chloroplasts are vital to
- humans. HUMANS ARE COMPLETELY DEPENDENT ON PLANTS
Describe the evolutionary origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts.
Mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved from prokaryotic cells engulfed by ancient eukaryotic cells.
what types of organisms first did respiration and photosynthesis?
What are the functions of the cytoskeleton?
Move parts of the cell; change cell shape & divide the cell
What type of molecule is the cytoskeleton composed of?
Explain why the following statement is true or false: Since plant cells have cells walls they do not have plasma membranes.
False- Plants have a cell wall and a plasma membrane
Explain why the following statement is true or false: Animal cells have something outside their plasma membranes, and it is the same thing that plants have.
False- Animals have an extracellular matrix outside of their plasma membrane.
What is the function of the plant cell wall?
Supports, shapes and protects cell. Also, prevents cells from bursting.
What is the general function of animals' extracellular matrix?
To anchor cells in tissue and participate in tissue formation.
What is the name of the main protein in animals' extracellular matrix?
Approximately how old is Earth?
What are our sources of information about early earth's environment?
Earths history from Geologists & earths composition from astronomers.
Explain overall what is meant by the phrase “chemical evolution," and list two steps in the process.
- Simple molecules somehow form simple organic molecules which then
- somehow form complex, larger organic molecules,
- which then organize into
- simple cells.
If we cannot observe the origin of life going on today, what experiments suggest how it might have happened?
In a lab if we use early earth conditions and we’ll get the steps in chemical evolution. Production of organic molecules.
Fill in the blanks below to describe the carbon cycle. Give molecules, names of processes, and direction of energy flow, form of energy. Molecule + molecule Process, energy flow Process, energy flow Molecule + molecule
- Glucose and Oxygen
- ↗Photosynthesis ←↑↓→ Respiration↘
- Carbon & Water
- Chemical energy released during respiration
- Light energy required for photosynthesis
What organelles in eukaryotes perform each process?
Mitochondria perform Respiration Chloroplasts perform photosynthesis
How do prokaryotes perform each process?
Use a specialized region on their plasma membranes
I'm thinking of an organism that can run photosynthesis. Can you tell me if it is an autotroph or a heterotroph? Explain.
Autotroph because only autotrophs can run photosynthesis
I'm thinking of an organism that can run respiration. Can you tell me if it is an autotroph or a heterotroph?
Can't tell because autotrophs and heterotrophs do respiration. Both, Autotroph and heterotroph, because heterotrophs can only do respiration, while autotrophs can run respiration and photosynthesis
Which of the following parts of the electromagnetic spectrum can plants and algae and cyanobacteria use for photosynthesis: gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet (UV), visible, infrared (IR), microwaves, radio waves?
Visible light has an intermediate/ medium energy; this is just right for photosynthesis
Why can't the organisms in a) use the other rays for photosynthesis (your answer should describe two categories of rays and reasons).
Can't use short because they provide too much energy and can't use long rays because long rays provide too little energy.
If you had to choose between a blue light and a green light to shine on plants, which would you choose and why?
Blue because chlorophyll is able to absorb red & blue light, but cannot absorb green.
Briefly describe the two key ("magical") parts of photosynthesis.
- 1. Trapping of light energy & conversion into chemical energy.
- 2. Carbon Fixation- the conversion of inorganic C in CO2 to Organic C in
- various molecules.
Chlorophyll does magical part 1 and Rubisco does magical part 2.
What is the role of chlorophyll in photosynthesis?
Absorb light & convert it into chemical energy
What kind of molecule is “rubisco,” and what is its role in photosynthesis?
An enzyme that converts CO2 to organic molecules thru carbon fixation.
How can you demonstrate that there is energy in carbohydrates and lipids, and show that oxygen is needed to release that energy?
Combustion: Burn paper or candle wax and we notice heat and light; energy is released. We notice that oxygen is needed because if we cut of the oxygen, the burning stops.
Why does using oxygen extract so much energy from food molecules?
Oxygen likes electrons carried by H much more than Carbon does. Carbon gives hydrogen to oxygen.
Why is there so much more energy in lipids than in carbohydrates?
Fats have 2 times Hydrogen per Carbon than Carbohydrates do. Electrons are carried by Hydrogen which provide more energy.
Why can’t we demonstrate the overall reactions of photosynthesis in a single step as we can with respiration?
Photosynthesis is the reverse of respiration and you cannot demonstrate the reverse of respiration. It is much harder to go from disorder to order.
In respiration lots of energy is released when cells convert food molecules and oxygen to carbon dioxide and water. Why doesn’t the cell just catch on fire, like paper does when running the same reaction?
It doesn’t burn up because cells do the overall reaction in many steps releasing a small amount of energy in each step.
What does the cell do (immediately) with the released energy?
Put the following events or processes in chronological order, and give an approximate date, in bya or mya, for each: first complex cells (eukaryotes), first simple cells (prokaryotes), first terrestrial life, formation of earth, onset of chemical evolution.
- 1. Formation of the earth - 4.6 b.y.a.
- 2. Onset of chemical evolution - 4 b.y.a.
- 3. First Simple cells - 3.8 b.y.a.
- 4. First complex cells - 2 b.y.a.
- 5. First terrestrial life - 0.5 b.y.a.
Approximately how long ago did chemical evolution begin on Earth?
Approximately how long ago did life originate on Earth?
Which type of organism, aquatic or terrestrial, is thought to have been the first to originate on earth?
List three benefits of aquatic life.
- 1. Easy to get water
- 2. Body support
- 3. supports sexual reproduction
What major change (two steps) in Earth's atmosphere took place before terrestrial life was able to evolve?
- 1. Origin of photosynthesis, leading to oxygen (O2) in the atmosphere.
- 2. Excess oxygen formed ozone layer (O3), which screens out UV.
Which two domains are part of a single kingdom (and what is the kingdom)?
Bacteria and Archaea are domains that are part of the Monera kingdom
Which four kingdoms are part of a single domain (and what is the domain)?
Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia are all kingdoms who are part of the domain Eukarya.
Define asexual reproduction, in terms of parents and offspring
One parent produces identical offspring.
Define sexual reproduction, in terms of parents and offspring.
Two parents produce similar, but not identical offspring.
What is the exception to the following statement?Most species in EVERY kingdom can do both types of reproduction.
Very few animals can perform asexual reproduction.
Which of the five kingdoms have at least some members that can run the entire carbon cycle?
Plantae; Monera (cyanobacteria); Protista (algae)
Which of the five kingdoms only have members that can run half of the cycle, and which half can they run?
Animalia and Fungi can only run respiration.
Which of the five kingdoms consist only of heterotrophs?
Fungi & Animals
Which of the five kingdoms consists only of autotrophs?
List three major roles Monera play in ecosystems.
- 1. Cyanobacteria are producers in aquatic ecosystems (autotrophs)
- 2. Decomposers (heterotrophs)
- 3. Nitrogen fixation in soil
To which kingdom do Cyanobacteria belong?
What role do Cyanobacteria play in ecosystems?
They are aquatic producers-Autotrophs
List three uses humans make of Monera.
- 1. Medicine
- 2. Sewage treatment
- 3. Milk production
Explain why the following statement is true or false: Viruses belong to the kingdom Monera.
False because viruses don't belong to a kingdom; they are just packages of genetic information.
Give two examples of species interactions involving Monera: name the type of interactions and give specific examples.
Mutualism- E.Coli in the human intestine Commensalism- Bacteria on human skin
Tell which type of species interaction each of the following examples illustrates: bacteria living on human skin; E. coli living in human intestine; nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules of legumes (pea family plants).
Bacteria living on human skin is COMMENSALISM
E. coli living in human intestine is MUTUALISM
- Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules of
- legumes is MUTUALISM
Describe two general problems bacteria cause for humans.
1. Cause diseases & 2. they cause food deterioration
What is the term for a disease causing agent such as a bacterium or virus?
What causes your body to make antibodies (in most cases)?
An antigen has to enter your body to cause an immune response.
Explain why you get sick from a pathogen the first time you are exposed to it.
The immune response is “Slow & Low” You cannot build up enough antibodies against the new pathogen yet; causing you to get sick.
Explain why you do not get sick from a pathogen the second time you are exposed to it.
The immune response is “Fast & High” You are able to produce more antibodies in a quicker amount of time; causing you not to get sick.
Name the type of treatment/preparation that protects against bacterial or viral infection.
- Vaccination (protects against bacterial and viral infections)
- Antibiotics (only prevent against bacterial infections)
Explain how you can avoid getting sick from a pathogen the first time you are exposed to it.
By getting a vaccination, which produces a secondary immune response the first time a new pathogen enters your body.
What is a vaccine and what does it do for you?
A Vaccine is a harmless form or part of a pathogen. When administered the vaccine creates a primary immune response without you getting sick.
Name the type of agent/chemical that inhibits bacterial growth, and is used to treat bacterial infection.
What are the natural sources of antibiotics?
Fungi & some Bacteria
Why don't antibiotics work against viral infection?
Antibiotics only work on bacteria and viruses are not bacteria. They are genetic packages that invade eukaryotic cells.Antibiotics do not work on Eukaryotic cells.
Why don't antibiotics work against athlete's foot?
Fungi aren’t affected by antibiotics. Fungi are also eukaryotic cells and are not affected by antibiotics.
Explain why it is unwise to try to use antibiotics as preventive measures (e.g. putting them in healthy cattle feed) or taking them when you have the flu?
Overuse of antibiotics creates a selective environment which selects for the growth of antibiotic resistant bacteria. This is not a good idea if you want to keep using the same medicine to treat the diseases, instead we’d have to keep creating new medication for new diseases caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
When Warriors power forward David Lee was accidentally bitten by Wilson Chandler, "they couldn't find the right antibiotic. They were using strong stuff and nothing worked." Describe and explain a common practice in our society that probably contributed to this problem.
Overuse/ abuse of antibiotics
Explain why the following is true or false: Antibiotics create antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
False: Antibiotics select for the growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Explain why you should care whether patients in China take antibiotics for the flu.
People and bacteria travel all over the world and China’s mistake will sooner or latter make us sick.
What is the general name for photosynthetic Protista (the name is not autotroph)?
What is the general name for most of the heterotrophic Protista?
Give two examples of predator-prey interactions involving Protista: name the other kingdoms involved and give specific examples.
- Protozoa feeding on algae.
- Protozoa eating cyanobacteria
- Parasitic protozoa can live in terrestrial and aquatic organisms
Give two examples of mutualism involving Protista: name the other kingdoms involved and give specific examples.
Coral animals w/ (living in) symbiotic algae=mutualism
Lichens= fungi+Algae= Mutualism
What are malaria and giardia both examples of?
Human disease caused by Parasitic protozoa
What role do saprobic fungi play in an ecosystem?
They are decomposers; they eat dead matter.
What is the difference between the food sources of saprobic and parasitic fungi?
Fungi’s food source is alive and Saprobic food source is dead.
Give two examples of predator-prey interactions involving Fungi: name the other kingdoms involved and give specific examples.
Causing plant diseases, and athletes foot
What are smuts, rusts, ergot, and Dutch elm disease all examples of?
Plant diseases caused by fungi.
What are the two types of organisms making up mycorrhizae, and what kind of species interaction do they have?
Fungi + Plant Roots= Mutualistic Interaction
What are the two types of organisms making up lichens, and what kind of species interaction do they have?
Fungi + Algae= Mutualistic Interaction