Last Test A&P1!!!

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Last Test A&P1!!!
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Last Test A&P1!!!
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  1. Blood Transports
    • Oxygen, and nutrients to tissues
    • Carbon dioxide, and other waste products from tissues
    • Hormones, and immune cells throughout the body
  2. Blood helps Regulate
    • pH
    • Fluid volumes
    • Body temperature
  3. Blood Protects
    • Against blood loss via clotting
    • Against infection via production of some immune cells
  4. 3 TYPES OF PLASMA PROTEINS
    • Albumins
    • Globulins
    • Fibrinogen
  5. Albumins –
    most abundant and important for plasma osmotic pressure
  6. Globulins –
    important in transport of lipids / fat soluable vitamins, and immune system immunoglobulins = antibodies
  7. Fibrinogen -
    blood clotting
  8. Hemoglobin
    Oxygen-carrying protein in RBCs
  9. Production of RBCs=
    Erythropoiesis
  10. Erythropoietin stimulates
    red bone marrow production of more RBCs
  11. Hgb is degraded into its components:
    • Globin  (protein)
    • Heme
    • Iron
    • Non-iron part of heme degraded to biliverdin (green pigment)      
    • bilirubin (
    • a yellow pigment), which the liver releases in bile
  12. WHITE BLOOD CELLS =LEUCOCYTES
    • *Formed in red bone marrow
    • *Remove wastes, toxins, and damaged /abnormal / invading cells
    • *Some are capable of phagocytosis
    • *Found in blood as well as in tissues
    • *Fight infection  / important part of the immune system
    • *Some live days and others live months or years
    • *Several types
  13. Granular WBC’s–noticeable granules, lobed nuclei
    • Neutrophil
    • Eosinophil
    • Basophil
  14. Agranular WBC’s – no granules, non-lobed nuclei
    • Lymphocyte
    • *B lymphs
    • *T lymphs  
    • Monocyte
  15. Neutrophils
    • Most abundant WBCs, 50-75%
    • engulf bacteria by phagocytosis> a major function in curbing infection
  16. EOSINOPHILS
    • Small percentage (2-4%) of WBC’s
    • Parasitic infections and allergic reactions
  17. BASOPHIL
    • Least common of all WBC’s (<1%)
    • Release histamine during allergic reactions
    • Attracts other WBCs
    • When it migrates into connective
    • tissues >transforms into a mast cell
  18. MONOCYTE
    • Relatively uncommon WBC’s (3-8%)
    • Migrates to connective tissues, transforms into phagocytic cells (macrophages, osteoclasts, etc.)
  19. LYMPHOCYTE
    • 25-35% of all WBC’s
    • Develop into B and T cells (lymphocytes) cornerstone of our specific immune system
    • Most lymphocytes continually move
    • among lymphoid tissues, lymph, and blood, spending only a few hours at a time in blood
  20. B lymphocytes
    • Important component of the antibody mediated immune system
    • Give rise to plasma cells > antibodies
  21. T lymphocytes
    • Specialized white blood cells
    • Kill cells not recognized as coming from the body, and cancerous cells
  22. PLATELETS= Thrombocytes
    • Formed in the red bone marrow from 2000-3000 fragments of a cell called a megakaryocyte
    • Function in blood clotting
  23. STEPS OF HEMOSTASIS (CLOTTING OF BLOOD)
    • I. Vascular spasm
    • II. Formation of platelet plug
    • III. Blood coagulation and fibrous organization
    • IV. Clot dissolution - plasmin
  24. The key events in clot formation are
    • Clotting factors are released from injured tissue/ platelets
    • These clotting factors convert prothrombin thrombin
    • Thrombin causes fibrinogen (plasma protein produced by the liver) to form long strands of fibrin
    • Fibrin strands form a web that traps blood cells and forms a clot
  25. Clotting does not occur without
    Vitamin K
  26. Fibrinolytic System-
    • allows us to dissolve clots when they are inappropriate or no longer needed:   
    • Plasminogen > Plasmin> dissolves fibrin threads
  27. Agglutination (clumping)
    • Occurs when antibodies contact a foreign cell
    • This response is used to determine blood type
  28. Hemolysis
    A-A complexes activate the complement system which makes cell develop holes and burst
  29. Systemic circuit
    sends oxygenated blood to the body via the aorta and is powered by the left side of the heart.
  30. Pulmonary circuit
    sends unoxygenated blood to the lungs via pulmonary trunk and is powered by the right side of the heart.
  31. The arteries that attach to the heart
    • Pulmonary trunk
    • Arch of the Aorta 
    • Coronary arteries
  32. The veins that attach to the heart
    • Superior vena cava
    • Inferior vena cava
    • 4 Pulmonary veins
    • The Coronary Sinus
  33. BLOOD SUPPLY TO MYOCARDIUM
    RIGHT CORONARY ARTERY
    • Sino-atrial (SA) node artery
    • Atrio-ventricular (AV) node artery
    • Posterior interventricular artery
  34. BLOOD SUPPLY TO MYOCARDIUM
    LEFT CORONARY ARTERY
    • Anterior interventricular artery (Left anterior descending artery – LAD)
    • Circumflex coronary artery
  35. Coronary veins all collect into the
    coronary sinus on the back part of the heart then empty into the right atrium
  36. Purkinje fibers
    Special cardiac muscle cells conduct action potential into the myocardium
  37. CARDIAC OUTPUT (CO)
    CO is the volume of blood ejected from the ventricles each minute



    • CO = SV x HR
    • CO = SV (stroke volume) X HR (heart rate-beats/min)
    • Normal CO = 70mL X 75 beats/min. = 5250 mL/min.
    • = 5.25 L/min.
  38. TUNICA INTERNA (INTIMA)
    Endothelium (all vessels)* -
    simple squamous epithelium
  39. TUNICA MEDIA
    • Smooth muscle*
    • Elastic lamina (most prevalent in larger arteries)
  40. Arterioles
    • Smallest arteries
    • Prime controllers of blood pressure
    • Gatekeepers of capillary networks- open / closed
  41. Vasoconstriction
    Smooth muscle contracts > diameter lumen narrows >decreases blood flow
  42. Vasodilation
    Smooth muscle relaxes > diameter lumen increases > increases blood flow
  43. Capillaries
    • Microscopic-connect arterioles to venules
    • Walls one cell thick
    • Site of exchange between blood and cells
  44. Capillary Bed
    • Network of capillaries servicing a particular area
    • enormous surface area for exchange
    • Makes blood flow very slowly, allowing more time for exchange of gases and other materials
  45. 3 mechanisms move blood against gravity to heart
    • Contraction of skeletal muscles
    • Pressure differences of breathing
    • Vein valves
  46. If blood vessels dilates, even a little, the resistance drops by a power of ___
    4
  47. Autoregulation of blood pressure and blood flow is a complex interplay between:
    • •The vascular system
    • •The nervous system
    • •The endocrine hormones and organs like
    • the adrenal gland / kidney
    • •The heart
  48. Sympathetic Stimulation
    • Increases heart rate, BP, cardiac contractility
    • Dilates pupils
    • Dilates lung airways
    • Relaxes bowel muscles, but tightens sphincters
    • Causes “ goose bumps”
  49. Parasympathetic Stimulation
    • Decreases HR, BP, Contractility
    • Constricts pupils
    • Constricts lung airways             
    • Increases gut motility, relaxes sphincters
  50. Shock (hemodynamic)
    failure to deliver adequate O2 and nutrients to tissues, usually due to poor blood flow
  51. Hypovolemic shock –
    due to decreased blood volume
  52. Cardiogenic shock –
    due to weakened heart function
  53. Vascular shock –
    due to inappropriate vasodilation (anaphylactic)
  54. Obstructive shock –
    due to obstruction of blood flow
  55. Atherosclerosis –
    hardening of the arteries
  56. Hypertension-
    • Primary – Chronic- Single specific cause usually can not be identified
    • Secondary – due to arterial or kidney disease, or hormonal imbalances
  57. Aneurysm-
    • Ballooning of a vessel
    • Atherosclerosis and hypertension > weaken a vessel >causes ballooning > rupture
  58. Air passing through the respiratory tract traverses the:
    • Nasal cavity
    • Pharynx
    • Larynx
    • Trachea
    • Primary (1o) bronchi
    • Secondary (2o) bronchi
    • Tertiary (3o) bronchi
    • Bronchioles
    • Alveoli (150 million/lung)
  59. THE LARYNX
    Thyroid cartilage (“Adam’s Apple”) + Vocal Cords + Cricoid cartilage 2 mucosal folds = vocal cords; opening between them = the glottis
  60. THE TRACHEA
    • Tube that connects the larynx with the 1° bronchi
    • Located just anterior to the esophagus in the mediastinum
    • Cartilaginous rings( C-shaped)- insure airway
    • stays open
    • Lining = epithelium with cilia +mucus secreting goblet cells  ---- keep lungs clean
  61. THE BRONCHIAL TREE
    • Two primary bronchi lead from trachea to the lungs
    • Bronchi continue to branch smaller until > bronchioles
    • All bronchi above bronchioles contain cartilage in walls
  62. Bronchioles
    ~1mm diameter and contain smooth muscle
  63. Constriction or dilation of bronchioles (caused by contraction or relaxation of smooth muscle)
    regulates passage of air into the alveoli
  64. Pulmonary lobule
    each alveolus is covered by a capillary bed
  65. The smooth muscle surrounding bronchioles is under control of _________:

    Autonomic Nervous System
  66. Sympathetic stimulation
    airway dilation,
  67. Parasympathetic stimulation
    airway constriction
  68. ALVEOLI
    • •sac-like at end of respiratory passages
    • •enveloped by capillaries
    • •Lined with simple squamous epithelium - easy exchange of gases
    • •lined with surfactant- a phospholipid acts as a film to coat alveoli and keep them open
  69. STRUCTURE OF ALVEOLUS
    • LINING OF AN ALVEOLUS:
    • Type-I alveolar cell- Allows exchange of O2 /CO2 between air and blood                   
    • Most numerous type
    • Type-II
    • alveolar cell- makes surfactant. Deficiency in pre-mature infants > “respiratory distress syndrome of new-born”=RDS
    • •Dust cell (Alveolar Macrophage)- gather and digest debris/ bacteria (remember that all macrophages are the garbage men of WBC’s)
  70. Boyle’s law
    • Volume and pressure are inversely related
    • V ∝ 1/P
  71. Air moves in response to pressure gradients


    –into lungs when pressure in atmosphere pressure in lungs

    –out of lungs when pressure in lungs pressure in atmosphere
  72. Pressure changes in the lungs are created by
    changes in volume of the thoracic cavity
  73. Volume changes of the thorax are created by the
    contraction or relaxation of muscles of the thorax
  74. The diaphragm is the primary
    muscle of ventilation
  75. Inhalation = Inspiration
    • •diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract
    • •diaphragm flattens / rib cage moves up and out
    • •volume of thorax increases
    • •air pressure around/ in lung decreases
    • Atmospheric pressure forces air into lungs
  76. Dalton’s law
    The pressure of each gas in a mixture of gases is directly proportional to the percentage of that gas in the total mixture:  PTotal = P1 + P2 + P3 …
  77. Henry’s law
    • Increasing the partial pressure of a gas in contact with a solution will result in more of the gas dissolving into the solution.  
    • E.g. O2 and blood
  78. CO2 is transported in the blood in three different forms:
    • 1) 7% is dissolved in the plasma, as a gas.
    • 2) 70% is converted to carbonic acid (action of enzyme carbonic anhydrase) then dissociates into a bicarbonate ion + H+
    • CO2 + H2O⇿ H2CO3  ⇿H+ + HCO3-3) 23%  is attached to Hgb (not at same binding sites as oxygen).
  79. Carbon dioxide-
    • Most important chemical influencing breathing rate Chemoreceptors in medulla, aortic bodies, carotid bodies Increased carbon dioxide
    • > increased breathing rate

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