An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
View personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences.
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions.
According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.
In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
A reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.
The largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality.
The part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement (the conscience) and for the future aspirations.
The childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.
According to Freud, a boy's sexual desires towards his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father.
The process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos.
According to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved.
In psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history.
A personality test, such as the Rorschach, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics.
Rorschach Inkblot Test
The most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.
View personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth.
According to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential.
Unconditional Positive Regard
According to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person.
All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
A characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports.
A questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.
The most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests, Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.
Empirically Derived Test
A test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups.
Views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits (including their thinking) and their social context.
The interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment.
In contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions.
Overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us).