Miscellaneous Oportunistic fungal pathogens

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Miscellaneous Oportunistic fungal pathogens
2013-12-08 09:44:13
Opportunistic fungal infections

Misc. opportunistic fungal pathogens and their discription
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  1. Acremonium spp (A. falciforme & A. kiliense)

    Sexual Stage
    Location found
    1. No known sexual stage (fungi imperfecti)

    2. Filamentous in plant debris and soil

    3. Causes: Onychomycosis, keratitis, endocarditis, meningitis, peritonitis, and osteomyelitis
  2. Micro & Macro Appearnce of Acremonium spp.
    • Macro:
    • *Rapid grower
    • *White & Cottony

    • Micro:
    • *Hyaline, septate hyphae
    • *Unbranched erect phialides are formed at the end of the hyphal tips
    • *conidia in clusters or gragile chains
  3. Acremonium

    Infections & Therapy
    1. Causes: Onychomycosis, keratitis, endocarditis, meningitis, peritonitis, and osteomyelitis

    Amphotericin B
  4. Fusarium spp
    (F. solani, oxysporum, chlamydosporum)

    Fungi Imperfecti

    (when imperfecti, they reproduce by conidia)
  5. Fusarium

    Macro & Micro features
    • Macro:
    • *Rapid
    • *Wooly to cottony, flat, spreading
    • *Front - White, cream, tan, salmon, cinnamon, yellow, red, violet, pink, or purple
    • *Reverse - Colorless, tan, red, dk purple, or brwon

    • Micro:
    • * Macroconidia
    • * Thick walled
    • * Smooth
    • * Canoe shaped (cylindrical or sickle)
  6. Fusarium spp.

    Treatment & Infections
    • Fusariosis - from trauma or inhaled conidia
    • mycoses
    • disseminated inf. high mortality

    • Treatment:
    • ***One of the most resistant fungi.
    • Amphotericin B, voriconazole, & natamycin have low MIC's
  7. Geotricum spp. 
    (G. candidum, G. clavatumm, G. fici)

    fungi imperfecti

    World wide in soil, water, air, sewage, plants, cereals, & dairy
  8. Geotricum spp.

    Macro & Micro appearance
    • Macro:
    • Rapid
    • White, dry, powdery to cottony (ground glass appearance)
    • may be yeast like
    • 25C

    • Micro:
    • Arthroconidia
    • Coarse *true hyphae
    • rectangular or rounded ends
  9. Geotricum spp.

    contraction of disease
    Ingestion or Inhalation

    Voriconazole has lowest MIC

    High mortality for disseminated disease.
  10. Paecilomyces spp.
    (p. lilacinus & p. variotii)

    Perfect fungi

    soil, decaying plants & food products
  11. Paecilomyces spp.

    disease and treatment
    Onychomycois, sinusitis, otitis media, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, peritonitis, & catheter related

    Amphotericin B
  12. Paecilomyces spp.

    Macro & Micro
    • MACRO:
    • Rapid
    • **P. variotii = thermophilic
    • Flat, powdery or velvety
    • Front: initially white ⇨ yellow, yellow green, yellow brown, olive brwon, pink, or violet

    Back: Dirty white, buff, or brown

    **Hallmark** for paecilomyces is that micro and macroscopic resemble penicillium spp.

    • Micro:
    • Septate hyaline hyphae
    • Conidiophores are often branched
    • Phialides are swollen at their bases and taper towards their apices
    • Conidia are unicellular, hyaline to darkly colored and form longs chains
    • Usually grouped in pairs or brush like clusters
  13. Penicillium spp.

    P. chrysogenum, P citrinum
    *P. marneffei

    Pefect fungi

    P. marneffei SE Asia (thermal dimorph
  14. Penicillium spp.

    • Virulent in AIDS patients
    • ~ keratitis, endophtalmitis, otomycyosis, necrotizing esophagitis, pneumonia, endocarditis, peritonitis, and UTI

    P. marneffei often fatal

    Amp B or conazoles for most 

    P. marneffei:  combination: conazoles.
  15. Penicillium spp.

    Macro & Micro
    • Macro:
    • Rapid
    • velvety, woolly, or cottony
    • Front: white ⇨ blue green, gray gree, olive gray, yellow, or pinkish
    • Reverse:  Pale to yellowish

    • Micro:
    • Flask shaped phialides
    • Form brush like clusters
    • Conidia are round, unicellular that form unbranching chains at the tips of the phialides.
  16. Scopulariopsis spp.
    (S. brevicaulis (hyaline)
    (S. cinerea (dematiaceous)

    Soil, plant material, feathers, and insects

    • Onychomycosis *especially of the toe nails
    • Disseminated = High mortality

    Variable: Amp B, keto and vori conazole
  17. Scopulariopsis spp.

    Micro & Macro
    Macro: Moderately rapid, granular to powdery

    • Front - White intitially and becomes light brown or buff (Khaki to me)
    • Reverse - tan with brownish center

    • Micro:
    • Septate hyphae
    • conidiophores are hyphae like and simple or branched
    • Round conidia that are slightly flattened where they break off from daughter cell. Also have tiny projections off of conidia