Miscellaneous Oportunistic fungal pathogens

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ucstudent01
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248556
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Miscellaneous Oportunistic fungal pathogens
Updated:
2013-12-08 09:44:13
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Opportunistic fungal infections
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Description:
Misc. opportunistic fungal pathogens and their discription
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  1. Acremonium spp (A. falciforme & A. kiliense)

    Sexual Stage
    Location found
    1. No known sexual stage (fungi imperfecti)

    2. Filamentous in plant debris and soil

    3. Causes: Onychomycosis, keratitis, endocarditis, meningitis, peritonitis, and osteomyelitis
  2. Micro & Macro Appearnce of Acremonium spp.
    • Macro:
    • *Rapid grower
    • *White & Cottony

    • Micro:
    • *Hyaline, septate hyphae
    • *Unbranched erect phialides are formed at the end of the hyphal tips
    • *conidia in clusters or gragile chains
  3. Acremonium

    Infections & Therapy
    1. Causes: Onychomycosis, keratitis, endocarditis, meningitis, peritonitis, and osteomyelitis

    Amphotericin B
  4. Fusarium spp
    (F. solani, oxysporum, chlamydosporum)

    Description
    Fungi Imperfecti

    (when imperfecti, they reproduce by conidia)
  5. Fusarium

    Macro & Micro features
    • Macro:
    • *Rapid
    • *Wooly to cottony, flat, spreading
    • *Front - White, cream, tan, salmon, cinnamon, yellow, red, violet, pink, or purple
    • *Reverse - Colorless, tan, red, dk purple, or brwon

    • Micro:
    • * Macroconidia
    • * Thick walled
    • * Smooth
    • * Canoe shaped (cylindrical or sickle)
  6. Fusarium spp.

    Treatment & Infections
    • Fusariosis - from trauma or inhaled conidia
    • mycoses
    • disseminated inf. high mortality

    • Treatment:
    • ***One of the most resistant fungi.
    • Amphotericin B, voriconazole, & natamycin have low MIC's
  7. Geotricum spp. 
    (G. candidum, G. clavatumm, G. fici)

    Sex
    Location
    fungi imperfecti

    World wide in soil, water, air, sewage, plants, cereals, & dairy
  8. Geotricum spp.

    Macro & Micro appearance
    • Macro:
    • Rapid
    • White, dry, powdery to cottony (ground glass appearance)
    • may be yeast like
    • 25C

    • Micro:
    • Arthroconidia
    • Coarse *true hyphae
    • rectangular or rounded ends
  9. Geotricum spp.

    contraction of disease
    treatement
    Ingestion or Inhalation

    Voriconazole has lowest MIC

    High mortality for disseminated disease.
  10. Paecilomyces spp.
    (p. lilacinus & p. variotii)

    sex
    location
    Perfect fungi

    soil, decaying plants & food products
  11. Paecilomyces spp.

    disease and treatment
    Onychomycois, sinusitis, otitis media, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, peritonitis, & catheter related

    Amphotericin B
  12. Paecilomyces spp.

    Macro & Micro
    • MACRO:
    • Rapid
    • **P. variotii = thermophilic
    • Flat, powdery or velvety
    • Front: initially white ⇨ yellow, yellow green, yellow brown, olive brwon, pink, or violet

    Back: Dirty white, buff, or brown

    **Hallmark** for paecilomyces is that micro and macroscopic resemble penicillium spp.

    • Micro:
    • Septate hyaline hyphae
    • Conidiophores are often branched
    • Phialides are swollen at their bases and taper towards their apices
    • Conidia are unicellular, hyaline to darkly colored and form longs chains
    • Usually grouped in pairs or brush like clusters
  13. Penicillium spp.

    P. chrysogenum, P citrinum
    *P. marneffei

    Sex
    Description
    location
    Pefect fungi


    P. marneffei SE Asia (thermal dimorph
  14. Penicillium spp.

    Disease
    Treatment
    • Virulent in AIDS patients
    • ~ keratitis, endophtalmitis, otomycyosis, necrotizing esophagitis, pneumonia, endocarditis, peritonitis, and UTI

    P. marneffei often fatal

    Amp B or conazoles for most 

    P. marneffei:  combination: conazoles.
  15. Penicillium spp.

    Macro & Micro
    • Macro:
    • Rapid
    • velvety, woolly, or cottony
    • Front: white ⇨ blue green, gray gree, olive gray, yellow, or pinkish
    • Reverse:  Pale to yellowish

    • Micro:
    • Flask shaped phialides
    • Form brush like clusters
    • Conidia are round, unicellular that form unbranching chains at the tips of the phialides.
  16. Scopulariopsis spp.
    (S. brevicaulis (hyaline)
    (S. cinerea (dematiaceous)

    location
    disease
    treatment
    Soil, plant material, feathers, and insects

    • Onychomycosis *especially of the toe nails
    • Disseminated = High mortality

    Variable: Amp B, keto and vori conazole
  17. Scopulariopsis spp.

    Micro & Macro
    Macro: Moderately rapid, granular to powdery

    • Front - White intitially and becomes light brown or buff (Khaki to me)
    • Reverse - tan with brownish center

    • Micro:
    • Septate hyphae
    • conidiophores are hyphae like and simple or branched
    • Round conidia that are slightly flattened where they break off from daughter cell. Also have tiny projections off of conidia

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