Anatomy 4 Respiratory

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13BlueInkBunnies
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248577
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Anatomy 4 Respiratory
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2013-11-27 13:41:04
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Respiratory
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respiratory system
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  1. Functions of Respiratory System
    • gas exchange
    • intake O2
    • elimination CO2
  2. Location where air entering the body is filtered, warmed, and humidified by the
    **nasal cavity**
  3. Surfactant (function, what cells produce it)
    • type II alveolar cells (secrete)--> alveolar fluid (has)--> surfactant keeps alveoli from collapsing
    • and lowers the surface tension of alveolar fluid, preventing the collapse of alveoli with each expiration
  4. Function of the nasal conchae
    • increases mucosal surfase area exposed to the air
    • enhances air turbulence in the nasal cavity
    • heat, filter, moisten air (inhalation)
    • (exhalation)- reclaim heat and moisture by precipitate moisture and extract heat from the humidity air flowing over them
    • decrease moisture and heat lost through breathing
  5. Functions of nasal cavity
    produces mucus, filters, warms and moistens incoming air, receptors of smell
  6. The openings to the nostrils are the _________.
    **external nares**
  7. The Valsalva Maneuver (used for)
    • childbirth              inhalation
    • defecation            urination
    • vomiting              coughing
    • screaming           sneezing
    • burping               nose blowing
    • when abdominal muscles contract with diaphragm and the glottis is closed
  8. Regions of the pharynx
    • regions: 1. Nasopharynx 2. Oropharynx 3. Laryngopharynx 
    • 1. Nasopharynx- respiration
    • 2. Oropharynx & 3. Laryngopharynx- in digestion and respiration (serving as a passageway for both air and food)
    • Pharynx (throat) upper respiratory system
    • muscular tube lined by mucous membrane
  9. The Glottis
    • opening
    • taking a deep breath, closing glottis and forcing air superiorly from lungs against glottis; glottis opens suddenly and a blast of air rushes upward. Can dislodge foreign particles or mucus from lower respiratory tract and propel them superiorly.
  10. Factors that cause the release of oxygen from hemoglobin
    • pO2,pCO2, low pH acidity, temperature, Bohr effect and BPG
    • pO2- most important factor
  11. Vocal folds (oxug
    **FALSE**
  12. The cartilage (Adam's apple) that makes up most of the anterior and lateral surface of the larynx is
    **thyroid cartilage**
  13. The cartilage that serves as a base for the larynx is the _________ cartilage.
    **cricoid**
  14. Air passing through the glottis vibrates the vocal folds resulting in
    **sound**
  15. Trachea (structure, composed of)
    • (windpipe) from the larynx to the primary bronchi
    • composed: smooth muscle and rings of cartilage and
    • lined: w/ pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
    • part of the lower respiratory system and conduction zone
  16. Expiration/ Exhalation/ what process?
    **passive process**
  17. The respiratory membrane
    • alveolar-capillary (respiratory) membrane
    • gas exchange occurs across the alveolar-capillary membrane
    • the greater surface area the more gas can diffuse
    • O2 and CO2 gradients diffuse across
    • very high partial pressure
  18. Respiratory Tree
    • 2. Bronchioles
    • 4. Primary Bronchi
    • 1. Secondary Bronchi
    • 3. Alveolar Ducts
    • 5. Alveoli
  19. The actual sites of gas exchange withing the lungs
    **alveoli sacs**
  20. Factors that cause the release of oxygen from hemoglobin (triggers)
    **temperature**
  21. Air moves into the lungs because-Mechanics of breathing example given on the board
    **Inhalation**
  22. Air moves out of the lungs because- Mechanics of breathing
    **Exhalation**
  23. Henry's Law (def)
    Henry's Law states that the quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility coefficient (its physical or chemical attraction for water), when the temperature remains constant.
  24. Dalton's Law states that
    each gas in a mixture of gasses exerts its own pressure as if all the other gasses were not present
  25. Accessory muscles to the breathing
    • inspiration muscles used
    • sternocleidomastoids, scalenes, and pectoralis minor
    • expiration
    • internal intercostals and abdominal muscles
  26. When the diaphragm and external intercostals muscles contract what happens
    **Inhale up volume/ pressure down**
  27. Pulmonary ventilation
    Pulmonary ventilation (breathing) is the first of three basic processes of respiration; it consists of inspiration and expiration. The other two processes are external (pulmonary) respiration and internal (tissue) respiration.
  28. The process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluids is?
    **tissue respiration**
  29. Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is located where
    **hemoglobin/ oxyhemoglobin**
  30. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by what process
    **diffusion**
  31. The most important chemical regulator of respiration is
    **carbonic acid**
  32. Boyle's law state
    the volume of the gas varies inversely with pressure, assuming temperature is constant
  33. The normal rate and depth of breathing (RHYTHM) is established by the ________ center.
    **medullary**
  34. Boyle's Law
    • the volume of the gas varies inversely with pressure, assuming temperature is constant
    • up pressure/ down volume
  35. Where would you expect to find ..pressure of carbon dioxide
    D. Intercellular
  36. The Hering-Breuer reflex
    Among the modifying factors are cortical influences, the inflation (Hering-Breuer) reflex, chemical stimuli such as 02 and CO2 (actually H~) levels, proprioceptors, temperature, pain, and irritation to the respiratory mucosa.
  37. External respiration
    • external pulmonary respiration- exchange of gases between alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries
    • It results in the conversion of deoxygenated blood coming from the heart to oxygenated blood returning to the heart.
    • It depends on partial pressure differences, a large surface area for gas exchange, a small diffusion distance across the alveolar-capillary (respiratory) membrane, an minute volume of respiration.
    • O2 and CO2 diffuse from areas of their higher partial pressures to areas of their lower partial pressures.
  38. The process of internal (tissue) respiration involves (def)
    • the exchange of gases between tissue blood capillaries and tissue cells
    • It results in the conversion of oxygenated blood into deoxygenated blood
    • At rest only abour 25% of the available oxygen in oxygenated blood actually enters tissue cells. During exercise, more oxygen is released.
  39. Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported by hemoglobin
    **carbominohemoglobin**
  40. Factors that cause the release of oxygen from hemoglobin
    • 1. increasing temperature
    • 2. blood pH
    • 3. blood concentration of CO2
    • BPG - a substance formed in RBCs during glycolysis. The greater the level of BPG, the more oxygen is released from hemoglobin.
  41. The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. THe function of type II is:
    type II alveolar cells (secrete)--> alveolar fluid (has)--> surfactant keeps alveoli from collapsingand lowers the surface tension of alveolar fluid, preventing the collapse of alveoli with each expiration
  42. when the diaphragm and external intercostals muscles contract
    **Inhalation**
  43. Bohr effect
    • in low pH (acidic) O2 splits more readily from hemoglobin
    • high pCO2
  44. Collapse of a lung is known as
    **Atelectasis**
  45. BPG is a substance that
    BPG (2,3-bisphosphoglycerate), previously called diphosphoglycerate (DPG), is a substance formed in red blood cells during glycolysis. The greater the level of BPG, the more oxygen is released from hemoglobin.
  46. Which center(s) is (are) located in the pons?
    • pneumotaxic center
    • Apneustic
  47. modified respiratory air movements
    **sneezing and coughing**
  48. Death from carbon monoxide poisoning would be due to
    **preference of CO over oxygen**
  49. Possible causes of hypoxia include (all hypoxias and causes)
    • hypoxia refers to oxygen deficiency at the tissue level and is classified as hypoxic, anemic, stagnant, or histotoxic
    • 1. Hypoxic hypoxia is caused by a low pO2 in arterial blood (high altitude, airway obstruction, fluid in lungs)
    • 2. Anemic Hypoxia there is to little functioning hemoglobin in the blood (hemorrhage, anemia, carbon monoxide poisoning)
    • 3. Stagnant Hypoxia results from the inability of blood to carry oxygen to tissues fast enough to sustain their needs ( heart failure, circulatory shock)
    • 4. Histotoxic hypoxia, the blood delivers adequate oxygen to the tissues, nut the tissues are unable to use it properly (cyanide poisoning)
  50. Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the: (physical barriers)
    add more
  51. Mechanics of breathing (forced exhalation)
    • forced expiration employs contraction of the internal intercostals and abdominal muscles
    • blowing up a balloon
  52. Put these in order before entrance way
  53. in order
    • 1. parietal pleura
    • 2. pleural cavity
    • 3. visceral pleura
    • 4. lungs
  54. Exhalation
  55. Factors that cause the release of oxygen from hemoglobin
    • 1. increased temperature
    • 2. low pH levels
    • 3. BPG
    • 3. pCO2
  56. which of the following is caused by hypoxic hypoxia?
    Hypoxic hypoxia is caused by a low pO2 in arterial blood (high altitude, airway obstruction, fluid in lungs)
  57. The pleurae are vital to the integrity of the lungs because
    partial pressure
  58. factors important to hemoglobin saturation
    **amount of oxygen available**
  59. Hemoglobin
    **4**
  60. Hemoglobin structure
    • heme-pigment
    • globin- polypeptide chain
  61. Essay Boyle's law

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