Chemistry Chapter 5

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Chemistry Chapter 5
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  1. Atom
    The smallest particle of an element that retains the identity of the element.
  2. Electron
    A negatively charged particle within the atom.
  3. Subatomic Particle
    A particle that is smaller than the atom.
  4. Nucleus
    In chemistry, the positively charged centre of the atom.
  5. Proton
    A positively charged particle that is part of every atomic nucleus.
  6. Neutron
    An uncharged particle that is part of almost every atomic nucleus.
  7. Energy Levels
  8. Atomic Number
    The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
  9. Mass Number
    The sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
  10. Isotope
    One or two or more forms of an element that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons.
  11. Bohr-Rutherford Diagram
  12. Atomic Mass
    The average mass of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element.
  13. Periodic Table
    A system for organizing the elements into columns and rows, so that elements with similar properties are in the same column.
  14. Metal
    Typically, an element that is hard, shiny, malleable, and ductile, and is a good conductor of heat and electricity.
  15. Non-Metal
    Typically, an element that is not shiny, malleable, or ductile, and is a poor conductor of heat and electricity.
  16. Metalloids
    A element that shares some properties with metals and some properties with non-metals.
  17. Period
    A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table.
  18. Group
    A vertical column of elements in the periodic table.
  19. Alkali Metal
    • (Metal)
    • The elements in Group 1. They have low melting points and are soft enough to be cut easily. Highly reactive with water and/or oxygen.
  20. Alkaline Earth Metal
    • (Metal)
    • The elements in Group 2. Will burn in air if heated and produce bright, colourful flames. Highly reactive but slightly less than Alkali Metal.
  21. Halogens
    • (Non-metal)
    • The elements in Group 17. The top of the group (fluorine) to the bottom (iodine), the melting points increase. Highly reactive and extremely corrosive.
  22. Noble Gases
    • (Non-metal)
    • The elements in Group 18. odourless and colourless at room temperature. Non-reactive (stable).
  23. Valence Electron
    A electron in the outermost occupied level of an atom.

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