Fourth Quiz

Card Set Information

Fourth Quiz
2013-11-23 07:30:09
10 fermentation some 12

Fermentation, Viruses, Genetics
Show Answers:

  1. In fermentation the final electron receptor is
  2. The purpose of fermentation is to regenerate
  3. in Fermenation 2 ATP are generated during glycolysis by
  4. TWO major fermentation pathways
    Lactate & Alcohol
  5. oxygen is not needed in
  6. What is the final organic electron receptor is alcohol fermentation?
  7. What is the final organic electron receptor in lactic acid fermentation?
  8. complete viral particle
  9. protein coat of the viral particle is called the
  10. 4 shapes of viruses
    non-envelope icosohedral, non-enveloped helical, enveloped icosohedral & helical, complex
  11. 2 types of spikes that can be found on influenza virus are
    HA & NA
  12. 5 steps of viral multiplication
    1. Attachment or absorption 2. Entry 3. Synthesis 4. Assembly 5. Release
  13. 2 locations where viral parts may be assembled
    cytoplasm and nucelus
  14. 2 ways that a viral particle can be released from host cell
    budding & lysis
  15. 2 replication cycles that bacteriophages can conduct
    lysis & lysogeny
  16. lysogenic conversion
    changes the characteristic of the bacterial host
  17. in the lysogenic cycle, after the viral nucleic acid has integrated into the bacterial chromosome it's called a
    abnormal new cell growth an reproduction due to loss of regulation
  19. oncogenes
    involved in carcinogens
  20. 4 types of infections
    acute, latent, chronic, transformation into malignant cell
  21. plaque assay
    indirect count of bacteria in which voids are counted
  22. LD50
    dilution that contains a dose large enough to destroy 50% of host cells or organisms
  23. ID50
    infectious dose, causes infection in 50% of hosts
  24. Viroids
    only infect plants and only have single-stranded RNA
  25. Virusoids
    satellite RNAs and need a helper virus to infect cells
  26. Prion stands for
    proteinaceous infectious particles
  27. 5 diseases caused by prions
    Mad cow disease, Kuru, Creuztfeldt Jacob's, Scrapies, Fatal familial insomnia
  28. Genome
    full set of genes in a cell or virus
  29. prokaryotes are
  30. eukaryotes are
  31. genotype
    specific set of genes possessed
  32. phenotype
    observed characteristics (ex. eye color)
  33. transformation
    mode of gene tranfer (uptake of free DNA)
  34. enzyme that catalyzes DNA replication
    DNA polymerase
  35. Process by which sequence of nucleotides in mRNA is used to align the amino acids linked together in a protein
  36. Process by which the DNA sequence if rewritten as RNA
  37. when the DNA sequence of a gene has been rewritten as RNA the gene has been
  38. 4 bases in DNA
    A & T, C & G
  39. 4 bases in RNA
    A & U, C & G
  40. what are the sugars in DNA vs. RNA
    deoxyribose v. ribose
  41. shape of DNA molecule
    right-handed double helix
  42. The way the bases always pair with the same partner is called
    complementary base pairing
  43. the way the sugar-phophate DNA backbones are oriented is called
  44. each end of the DNA is different, there is a
    5 prime end and a 3 prime end
  45. gene
    a polynucleotide sequence that codes for one functional protein
  46. building blocks of proteins
    amino acids
  47. type of bond that links amino acids
    peptide bond
  48. DNA replication is SEMI-
  49. Each single strand of DNA serves as a
    TEMPLATE for synthesis of complimentary strand
  50. point where DNA polymerase initially bonds
    Origin of replication
  51. point of the DNA molecule where strands separate (like a zipper)
    replication fork
  52. where does the energy come from to add free nucleotides on the growing DNA molecule
    cleaves final two phosphates from deoxynucleotide tri-phosphate
  53. New nucleotides are added which end of the DNA?
    3 prime end of DNA
  54. enzyme that unwinds the DNA molecule
  55. protein that keeps strands apart
    single-stranded DNA binding proteins
  56. this half of the DNA molecule is synthesized continuously
    Leading strand
  57. this half of the NA molecule is synthesized in fragments
    Lagging strand
  58. the fragments in the lagging strand are called
    Okasaki fragments
  59. What is needed to start each fragment?
    RNA primer
  60. the enzyme that seals the fragments together
  61. The ends of the chromosomes are synthesized by the enzyme
  62. Set of 3 nucleotides that codes for a single amino acid
    RNA polymerase makes mRNA using DNA template
  64. Introns
    non-coding sequences between genes that are spliced out
  65. Promoter
    where transcription starts
  66. Terminator sequence
    signals RNA polymerase to stop transcription