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2013-11-23 10:37:51

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  1. blood 
    • 1)specialized connective tissue
    • 2)composed of blood+plasm (blood cells suspended in intracellular fluid which is the plasm)
    • 3)blood smear: may grunwald giemsa staining 
    • 4)cells found here:erythrocyte which is most numerous ,leukocyte,platlets
    • 5)all cell types formed in the red bone marrow
  2. erythrocytes
    • 1)7.5 micrometer in diameter
    • 2)special membrane features -deform readily(easily distroyed)
    • 3)in mature cells there is NO CELL ORGANELLES + NO NUCLEUS
    • 4)reticulocytes-immature form - RIBOSOMES (CRESYL BLUE STAINING )
    • 5)function:to transport oxygen to the peripheral tissues and carry co2 out of the tissues
    • 6)they have red color due to the oxygen content is high , and have purple color due to the lower amount of oxygen bounded to it
    • 7)normal value: 4.5-5.5 million/microliter
  3. thrombocytes
    • 1) 2-3 micrometer in diameter
    • 2)no cell nucleus
    • 3)they come from huge cells called MEGACARYOCYTES-cytoplasm fragments 
    • 4)function : hemostasis
    • 5)granules:coagulation factors , fibrinogen , plasminogen,PDGE,serotonin,histamine,ADP,hydrolytic enzymes
    • 6)contains mitochondria,microfilaments and microtubules
    • 7)function:hemostasis
    • 8)normal value:150,000-300,000 microliter
  4. leukocytes
    • 1)function: protection against foreign antigens/ bacteria, viruses etc., clearing away dead cells(phagocyte)
    • 2)perform their function mainly in the connectivetissue
    • 3)normal value: 6,000 - 10,000 /MICROLITER
    • 4)groups: polymorphous nuclear(granulocytes) 
    •            monomorphus nuclear(lymphocytes,monocytes)

  5. granulocytes- neutrophiles:
    • 1)12-14 micromiter in diameter, most common type
    • 2)60-70% of leukocytes highly lobulated nucleus with narrow cromatin bridges
    • 3)cytoplasmic granules:there are 2 main tyes of granules in neutrophiles 
    • A)primary granules:azurophilic granules (modified lysosomes) round shape, contain hydrolyticenzymes, myeloperoxidase,
    • defensine
    • B)secondary granules :specific granules: (more common and contain a variety of antibacterial compounds) :alkaline phosphatase, collagenase, phospholipase, lizozime, fagocitine
    • 4)8-10 hour in circulation->connective tissue
    • 5)the most effective phagocyte cell (perform phagocytes of bacteria
  6. eosinophile granules
    • 1)4-16 micrometer in diameter
    • 2)bilobulated nucleus, eosinophil granules
    • 3)2-4 % of leukocytesgranules:
    • 4)acidophilic granules: (specific granules):expel parasitic worms(helminths-organisims that living in and feeding on living hosts, receiving nourishment and protection while disrupting their hosts' nutrient absorption, causing weakness and disease ) from the body, by either stunning or killing them.MBP-major basic protein, ECP,-eoisnophil cationic protein ,EPO (eosinophil peroxidase), EDN (eosinophile derives neurotoxin)
    • azurophilic granules:contains mainly lysosomal enzymes- lysosomes
    • 5)function: defence against parazites,allergy
    • 6)eosinophilia: increased numbers of circulatingeosinophils
  7. basophile granules
    hard to find it in the slide
    • 1)loose cromatine structure, bilobulated U or J -shaped nucleus obscured(overcast) by numerous granules
    • 2)13-15 micrometer in diameter
    • 3)0.5-1% of leukocytes
    • 4)granules:
    • specific: basophil- covers the nucleus, histamine, SRS-A (slow reaction substance, heparin-sulphate/ metachromasiaazurophilic: lysosomesfunction: allergic reaction- anaphylaxis