Cell structure and Function

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Anonymous
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Cell structure and Function
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2013-11-24 10:33:49
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Cell animal plant
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Chapter 4
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  1. Cell
    • 1.Basic units of life
    • 2. Robert Brown, Matthais Schleiden, Theodor Schwan
  2. Cell Theory
    • All organisms are composed of cells.
    • Cells are basic units of structure and function in organisms.
    • Cells come only from preexisting cells because cells are self reproducing.
  3. Prokaryotic Cell
    • Structurally less complicated.
    • Lack membrane bound nucleus and organelles.
    • Used to manufacture- industrial chems, foodstuff and drugs.
  4. Structure of Prokaryotes
    Quiet small-  1.1-1.5 nm.

    • Three basic shapes : bacillus-rod shaped(chains/pairs), coccus-spherical shaped(chains/pairs/clusters),if they are twisted or spirals-spirella(rigid) & spirochetes-flexible.
  5. Cell Envelope
    • Includes: Plasma membrane, cell wall, glycocalyx.
    • Plasma Membrane: Phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins 
    • Cell wall : When present maintains shape of the cell, even if the cytoplasm should take up abundant water
    • Glycocalyx :Layer of polysaccharides that lies outside cell wall in some bacteria. When not easily washed off- capsule. Aids against drying out- resist host immune system - attach to ay surface.
  6. Plasma membrane (pro)
    • Regulates entrance and exit of substances into and out of cell- in order to maintain normal composition.
    • Can form internal pouches-Mesosomes-increase internal surface area for attachment of enzymes that are carrying on metabolic activities.
  7. Cytoplasm (pro)
    • Semi fluid solution- composed of water and inorganic and organic molecules encased in plasma membrane
    • DNA found in single, coiled chromosome- located in nucleoid
    • Extra chromosomal pieces of cellular DNA- plasmids-Self-duplicating ring of accessory DNA in the cytoplasm of bacteria. 
    • Ribosomes :Self-duplicating ring of accessory DNA in the cytoplasm of bacteria. Bacterial ribosomes still contain RNA and protein in two subunits.
  8. Cyanobacteria
    • Bacteria capable of photosynthesis.
    • Organisms- live in water, ditches, buildings, bark of trees.
    • Cytoplasm contains extensive internal membranes-thalakoids- chlorophyll and other pigments absorb solar energy for carbohydrate production.
    • Called Blue-green algae.
    • Release oxygen as byproduct of photosynthesis.
  9. Appendeges
    Flagella, fimbriae, conjugation pilli- made of protein.
  10. Flagella
    • Propel themselves in water.
    • Consists- filament, hook, basal body.
    • Basal Body- series of rings anchored in cell wall and membrane.
    • Hook- rotates 360 within the basal body, this propels bacteria.
    • Sometimes occur only at the two ends of a cell, and sometimes dispersed randomly over a surface
  11. Fimbriae
    • Small, bristle-like fibers that sprout from cell surface.
    • Not involved in locomotion.
  12. Conjugation pilli
    Rigid, tubular structures - pass DNA from cell to cell.
  13. Eukaryotic cells

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