RR Final 7 Mitosis Interphase-Prophase

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  1. What is the kinetochore?
    a.       The kinetochore is the button-like structure at the outer surface of the centromere of each chromatid, which assemble at the centromere at early prophase
  2. a.       Kinetochore proteins recruited due to __

    Functions: (3)
    • nucleosomes containing histones 
    • 1.       Site of attachment of chromosome to microtubules of mitotic spindle
    • 2.       Residence of several motor proteins involved in chromosome motility
    • 3.       Key component in signaling pathway of important mitotic checkpoint
  3. I.                    Formation of the Mitotic Spindle
    a.       Microtubule assembly in animal cells is initiated by a special microtubule-organizing structure called the __
                                                                  i.      After __, the microtubules of the cytoskeleton __in prep for __into the __
    • centrosome
    • G2
    • disassemble 
    • reassembly 
    • mitotic spindle
  4. 1.       Rapid disassembly of the __ is accomplished by inactivation of proteins that __amd the aactivation of proteins that __
    • interphase cytoskeleton
    • stabilize microtubules 
    • destabilize these polymers
  5. a.       Centrosome cycle
                                                                  i.      When an animal cell exits mitosis, the cytoplasm contains __ containing __ situated at right angles to each other
    1.       Before __finishes, the __ of each daughter cell lose their close association to one another due to the enzyme __, which becomes activated late in mitosis and cleaves a __ holding the centrioles togheter
    • a single centrosome
    • two centrioles
    • cytokinesis 
    • two centrioles
    • separase
    • proteinaceous link
  6. a.       Later, as DNA rep begins in the nucleus at the onset of __, each __of the __initiates its rep in the cytoplasm
                                                                                                                                          i.      This begins with the appearance of a small __next to each __ and oriented at right angles to it
    Subsequent microtubule eleongation converts each __into a full-length daughter centriole
    • S phase
    • centriole 
    • centrosome 
    • procentriole 
    • preexisting centriole
    • procentriole
  7.                                                               i.      At the beginning of mitosis, what happens with the centrosomes?
    1.       The initiation of centrosome duplication at the __ is normally triggered by __of a centrosomal protein by __, the same agent responsible for the onset of DNA replication
    a.       __ is a tightly controlled process so that only one daughter centriole is produced
                                                                                                                                          i.      More can lead to mutatiosn
    • the centrosome splits into two adjacent centrosomes, each with a pair of mother-daughter centrioles
    • G1-S transition
    • phosphorylation 
    • Cdk2
    • Centrosome duplication
  8.                                                               i.      The first stage in the formation of the mitotic spindle is what?
    1.       Microtubules grow by addition to their __, while __ remains associated with __
    • appearance of microtubules in star shape, called aster, around each centrosome
    • plus end
    • minus end
    • pericentriolar material of centrosome (PCM)
  9.                                                               i.      Process of __ is followed by __ and __
    1.       Driven by __
    As the centrosomes separate, the microtubules stretching between them increase in number and elongate until they reach opposite ends, establishing the two poles of a __
    • aster formation
    • separation of the centrosomes from one another
    • movement towards opposite ends of cell
    • motor proteins
    • bipolar mitotic spindle
  10.                                                               i.      Some animal cells lack __and plant cells too, but can make a __
    1.       The microtubules of the mitotic spindle are nucleated where rather than where?
    a.       Once polymerized, the __ are brought together at each spindle pole by __
    • centrosomes
    • mitotic spindle
    • near the chromosomes
    • at the poles where centrosomes would normally reside
    • minus ends
    • mtoor proteins
  11.                                                               i.      Mitotic spindle is assembled in __and chromosoems are compacted in __
    Interaction between the spindle and chromosomes is made possible by __ at the end of prophase
    • the cytoplasm 
    • the nucleoplasm
    • breakdown of the nuclear envelope
  12. What are the three components of the nuclear envelope?                                                             
    Some membranous organelles stay intact during mitosis, like __ (4)___
    • nuclear pore NP
    • nuclear lamina (NL)
    • membranes (NM)
    • mitochondria, lysosomes, and peroxisomes, and chloroplasts of plants
  13. Explain the NP
    disassembled as interactions between nucleoporin subcomplexes are disrupted and subcomplexes 
  14. Explain the NL
                                                                                                                                          i.      NL disassembled by depolymerization of lamin filaments
  15. Explain the NM
                                                                                                                                          i.      NM: holes develop into envelope by cytoplasmic dynein molecules
  16.                                                               i.      Debate of Golgi and ER: 3 things
    • 1.       Contents of Golgi are incorporated into ER during prophase, and Golgi complex ceases to exist as a separate organelle
    • a.       OR
    • 2.       Golgi fragments to vesicles that partition between daughter cells
    • a.       OR
    • 3.       Entire Golgi splits in two
Card Set:
RR Final 7 Mitosis Interphase-Prophase
2013-11-23 16:40:34
Cell Bio

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