Management 2

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Management 2
2013-11-23 16:13:16

Management 2
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  1. What is the third contingency theory?
    Path-Goal Theory
  2. What is Path-Goal Theory?
    • one of the most respect approaches to understanding leadership
    • states that the leader's job is to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide direction or support needed to ensure that their goals are compatible with those of the group or organization
  3. What is the term path-goal derived from?
    It is derived from the belief that effective leaders clarify the path to help their followers get from where they are to the achievement of their work goals - and make the journey along the path easier by reducing roadblocks and pitfalls
  4. What are the four leadership behaviours in Path-Goal Theory?
    • Directive leaders - leader lets subs know what's expected of them, schedules work to be done, gives spec guidance on how to accomplish tasks
    • Support leader - leader shows concern for the needs of followers and is friendly
    • Participative leader - leader consults with group members and uses their suggestions before making a decision
    • Achievement-oriented leader - leader sets challenging goals and expects followers to perform at their highest level
  5. How does Fiedler's view differ from House's view? (Path-goal theory)
    Fiedler viewed that a leader can't change his or her behaviour; House assumed that leaders are flexible and can display any or all of these leadership styles, depending on the situation
  6. Explain the Path-Goal Theory - it proposes two situation or contingency variables that moderate leadership behaviour. They are?
    • 1. Environmental Contingency Factors
    • - those in the environment that are outisde the control of the followers (task structure, formal authority system, work group)
    • 2. Follower - including locus of control, experience and perceived ability.
  7. Explain the Path-Goal Theory - what types of leadership produce performance and satisfaction? Which do not?
    • Leadership Styles:
    • Supportive - high emp perf and sat when subs are performing structured tasks; leader support - not tell
    • Directive -perceived as redundant among subs with high perceived ability or considerable experience; followers capable - don't need a leader to tell them what to do
  8. Explain the Path-Goal Theory - what types of leadership produce performance and satisfaction? Which do not?
    • Bureaucratic structure - the clearer the formal relationships, the more leaders should exhibit supportive/de-emphasize directive;
    • Directive within work group - directive leadership fosters higher emp satisfaction when there is substantive conflict within a work group - followers need a leader who will take charge
    • Subs - Internal locus of control - more satisfied with a participative leadership style. Follwoers believe that they control what happens to them, they prefer to participate in decisions.
  9. Explain the Path-Goal Theory - what types of leadership produce performance and satisfaction? Which do not?
    • Subs - external locus of control - satisfied with a directive leadership style; followers believe that what happens to them is a result of the external environment - prefer a leader who tells them what to do
    • Achievement-oriented leadership style - will increase subs' expectations that effort will lead to high perf when tasks are ambiguously structured. By setting challenging goals, followers know what the expectations are.
  10. What is transactional leadership?
    -leaders who lead primarily by using social exchanges (or transactions). They guide or motivate followers to work toward established goals by exchanging rewards for their productivity. Transformational leadership develops from transactional leadership.
  11. What is transformational leadership?
    • A transformational leader stimulates and inspires (transforms) followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes. They pay attention to followers' concerns and developmental needs; they change followers' awareness of issues by helping them look at old problems in new ways; able to excite, arouse, and inspire followers to exert extra effort to achieve group goals.
    • Transformational leaders were evaluated as more effective, higher performers, more interpersonally sensitive, more promotable than their transactional counterparts. Lower turnover rates; higher levels of productivity, emp satisfaction, creativity, goal attainment, follower well-being.
  12. What other leadership types are there?
    • Charismatic-Visionary Leadership: 
    • Charismatic leader - enthusiastic, self-confident leaders whose personalities and actions influence people to behave in certain ways. - characteristics - vision, ability to articulate that vision, willingness to take risks to achieve that vision, sensitivity to both environmental constraints and followers needs, behaviours that are out of the ordinary.
  13. What are the effects of charismatic leadership?
    correlations between charismatic leadership - high performance and satisfaction among followers
  14. What is charismatic? How to become charismatic?
    Most can be trained to exhibit charismatic behaviours.  Use charismatic nonverbal behaviours - leaning in toward the follower when communicating; direct eye contact eg. Steve Jobs
  15. What is visionary leadership?
    • ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible and attractive vision of the future that improve on the present situation. - jump-starts
    • An org' vision should offer clear and compelling imagery that taps into people's emotions and inspires enthusiasm to pursue the org's goals.
  16. What is team leadership?
    To be an effective team leader, they have to learn skills such as patiently sharing information, being able to trust others and give up authority but understanding when to intervene. It's a balancing act to know when to leave their teams along and when to get involved. Focus on two priorities: 1. managing the team's external boundary and 2. facilitating team process.
  17. Where do leaders get their power?
    • Power is their capacity to influence work actions and decisions. There are 5:
    • 1.legitimate power/authority - as a result of position in the org
    • 2. coercive power - power to punish or control; followers react out of fear of -ve results
    • 3. reward power - power to give positive rewards - money, favourable perf appraisals, promotions, interesting work assignments, etc
    • 4. expert power - power that's based on expertise, special skills, or knowledge. If an employee has skills, knowledge, or expertise that's critical to a work group, that person's expert power is enhanced
    • 5. referent power - the power that arises because of a person's desirable resources or personal traits. I admire you - want to be associated with you, you can exercise power over me because I want to please you
  18. Give an example of managing power:
    • admiral
    • legitimate - gives orders
    • reward - praises them
    • coercive - disciplines those who commit infractions
    • expert power - based on his expertise/knowledge
    • referent power - based on his being admired to influence the crew (as opposed to Captain Bligh)
  19. What are components of leadership?
    • Team Leadership
    • Managing Power
    • Developing Trust
    • Providing ethical leadership
    • Empowering employees
    • Leading across cultures
    • Understanding gender differences and leadership
  20. What is trust and why is it important?
    In today's uncertain environment, trust and credibility can be extremely fragile.