BILD 3: Final - Animals

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HollyBergen
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248665
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BILD 3: Final - Animals
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2013-11-30 15:18:08
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BILD UCSD organismic evolutionary biology
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BILD 3 UCSD organismic evolutionary biology
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  1. What are the 2 Main types of Deuterostomes?
    • 1. Echinoderms (sea stars, sea urchins)
    • 2. Chordata (includes vertibrates)
  2. Characteristics of echinoderms (6)
    • 1. Sessile or slow moving
    • 2. Hard endoskeleton surrounded by thin epidermis
    • 3. Unique water vascular system: Hydraulic canals branch into tube feet used for movement, feeding, gas exchange
    • 4. They DONT regulate salt levels, instead using the same as water surrounding them
    • 5. Madreporite= Opening used for water
    • 6. Bilateral symmetry as larvae, secondary radial symmetry as adults
  3. 5 Main Groups of Echinodermata:
    • 1. Feather stars, sea lilies (Crinoidea)
    • 2. Sea stars (Asteroidea)
    • 3. Brittle stars, basket stars (Ophluroldea)
    • 4. Sea urchins, san dollars (Echinoidea)
    • 5. Sea cucumbers (Holothuroldea)
  4. 4 Main Features of Chordates:
    • *1. Dorsal, hollow nerve chord
    • (part of ectoderm, forms hollow tube. Later becomes CNS w/BRAIN & SPINAL CORD)
    • *2. Notochord
    • (axial support, becomes our VERTIBRATE DISCS)
    • 3. Pharyngeal slits
    • (Gills in fish, become our voicebox)
    • 4. Post-anal tail


  5. 3 of the Vertibrate Fish Groups:
    • 1. Hagfish (Myxinoidea) aka "Shot Eels"
    • *LOST VERTIBRAE*
    • Mneumonic: MIXing of vertibrae & non!

    • 2. Sharks, rays (Chondrichthyes)
    • Mneumonic: Sharks are CON artists

    • 3. Ray-Finned Fishes (Actinopterygil)
    • Mneumonic: Dorsal fin ACTion
  6. Hagfish are different from other ____________ because after the trait evolved, the hagfish immediately lost it.
    Vertibrates
  7. Sharks and rays (Chondrichthyes) come after the trait of __________ so they are predators, but before the trait of ____________ so they can't fully go to sleep underwater.
    • Jaws
    • Lung/Swim bladder
  8. Characteristics of Hagfishes
    • "Shot Eel"
    • Least derived craniate lineage (They HAVE skull)
    • NO jaws, NO vertibrate (lost right after gained)
    • 4 Rows of teeth
    • Scavengers, feed on sick or dead fish
    • SLIME PREDATORS
  9. Characteristics of Sharks, Rays (Chondrichthyans)
    • Skeleton mostly carilage
    • (evolved secondarily from mineralized)
    • NO swim bladder, sink when not swimming 
    • (porpose sleeps with 1/2 of brain at time to keep moving & float)
  10. Ray-Finned fishes (Actinopterygil)
    • BONY skeletons
    • SWIM BLADDER for buoyancy
    • DORSAL FIN (membrane fin, used for moving, defense & others)
    • - includes bass, trout, etc
  11. Exaptation (of lungs)
    Exaptation is a shift in a function of a trait during evolution.

    Trait used in one species (lungs of terrestrial) became the swim or gas bladder in fishes.
  12. The transition from water to land occurred around ________________ during the _________________ Era.
    • 350 Million Years Ago
    • Paleozoic
  13. 3 Main Categories of Tetrapods:
    • 1. Amphibia
    • 2. Mammalia
    • 3. Reptilia
  14. Derived Characteristics of Tetrapods:
    • 4 limbs, feet w/digits
    • Neck allows head to rotate further
    • Ears
  15. 3 Order of Amphibians:
    • 1. Salomander (Urodela)
    • 2. Frogs & Toads (Anura)
    • 3. Apoda (Lizard w/no legs)
  16. ______________ came after limbs evolved, but before amniotic eggs evolved.
    Amphibians
  17. _____________ came after lactation & fur evolved & _____________ came after scales evolved. BOTH came after ____________________ evolved.
    • Mammalia
    • Reptilia
    • AMNIOTIC EGG
  18. Characteristics of Aphibians:
    • Means "Both ways of Life"
    • (Larva aquatic, adult, terrestrial)
    • Skin is respiratory surface, moist, complements lungs in gas exchange
    • Fertilization external, eggs need moist env.
  19. Derived Characteristics of Amniotes:
    (Mammalia & Reptilia)
    • Named for the clade which include the amniotic egg, containes membranes, protect embryo (4)
    • Ventilate lungs with ribcage rather than the throat (like amphibians; frogs)
  20. 4 Extraembryonic membranes of amniotes:
    • 1. Amnion: Contains embryo
    • 2. Chorion:  Cushion, gas-exchange
    • 3. Yolk sac: Contains nutrients
    • 4. Allantois : Contains waste
  21. Birds are categorized as ________________
    Reptiles
  22. 3 Derived Characteristics of Birds:
    (& 3 other traits)
    • Flight
    • Keratin feathers in wings
    • Lack of urinary bladder, females one ovary, loss of teeth, small gonads

    • Keel on sternum for flight muscles
    • Endothermic
    • Hollow bones strengthened by struts
  23. 3 Main traits of Mammals:
    • 1. Hair
    • 2. Lactation
    • 3. Red blood cells lack nucleus
  24. Red blood cells of mammals come from ___________ ______________, not other blood cells (they lack a nucleus)
    Bone Marrow
  25. Endotherms vs Ectotherms
    • Endotherms:
    • - "Warm blooded" (incorrect, but common term)
    • - Use metabolic energy to maintain high temp
    • - Can be active in cold temps
    • - Can sustain high levels of activity/endurance
    • Ectotherms:
    • - "Cold-blooded"
    • - Use environmental energy & behavioral adaptations to regulate body temp
  26. Even though birds are classified as reptiles, they are unlike most other reptiles in that they are ____________________
    Endothermic
  27. 3 Main Orders of Mammals:
    • 1. Monotremata (Platypus; lay eggs)
    • 2. Didelphimorpha (Marsupials; pouch)
    • 3. Eutherians (Placental)
  28. Characteristics of Eutherians
    (Placental mammals)
    • Longer pregnancy
    • Totally Internal
    • Better protection of embryo
    • Increased ability to provide nourishment through the placenta
    • Embryo, chorion, amnion, yolk sac still present, just added placenta
  29. Derived Characteristics of Primates (6):
    • Nails (not claws)
    • Hands & feet for grasping
    • Large brain, short jaws
    • Eyes forward (for depth)
    • Socially complex, parental care
    • Opposable thumb
  30. Closest sister taxa to primates is ___________
    Rodents
  31. 4 Main Groups of Primates:
    • 1. Prosimians (lemurs)
    • 2. New World monkeys
    • 3. Old World monkeys
    • 4. Gibbons
  32. New World vs. Old World monkeys:
    • New World monkeys:
    • - Smaller
    • - Longer legs & tails
    • - Live more in trees
    • Old World monkeys:
    • - Larger
    • - More upright,
    • - Shorter legs & tails
    • - Live more on ground
  33. After knuckle walking evolved, humans developed ___________ which allows them to walk upright
    Bipedalism
  34. Bipedalism includes traits:
    • Walking upright
    • No tail
    • Buttcheeks
    • Achilles tendon
  35. Apes diverged from Old World monkeys around _________ years ago
    20 - 25 Million
  36. Hominade (Great Apes) Include:
    5 Main
    • - Orangutan
    • - Gorilla
    • - Human
    • - Bonobo
    • - Chimpanzee
  37. 2 Closest sister taxa to Humans:
    • 1. Chimpanzees
    • 2. Bonobos
  38. Derived Characteristics of Humans:
    (8)
    • *1. Upright posture/ bipedal movement
    • *2. Larger Brains
    •   3. Complex language
    •   4. Use of tools
    •   5. Shortened jaw
    •   6. Shorter digestive tract
    •   7. Hairlessness
    •   8. Cryptic estrus
  39. Define Cryptic Estrus:
    In humans. Opposite of being in heat, where reproduction is an outward sign. In humans it increases PAIR BONDING.. because it's not obvious when we're ovulating/fertile. So need sex repeatedly to fertilize. Leads to MATE GUARDING.
  40. Persistance Hunting:
    • Humans able to endurance run & track animals until they die of heat stroke. When beginning to hunt, we did so WITHOUT advanced weaponry. Upright position more efficient in LONG DISTANCES. We are also hairless, allowing us to dissipate heat.

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