Fluid, electrolyte, and Acid-base balance

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Fluid, electrolyte, and Acid-base balance
2013-11-24 01:44:40

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  1. These disassociate in water
  2. These do not discoiate in water
    Non electrolytes
  3. the fluid compartments located OUTSIDE the cells
  4. fluid compartment located within the cell
  5. Spaces between the cells.
  6. Magnesium excess
  7. Calcium Depletion
  8. sodium excess
  9. potassium excess
  10. sodium depletion
  11. Edema
    An Unusual accumulation of fluid inthe interstitial space
  12. hypoproteinemia
    A condition of unusually low levels of plasma proteins resulting in tissue edema.
  13. Addison's disease
    A disorder entailing deficient mineralocorticoid hormoneproduction by the adrenal cortex
  14. Aldosterone
    Regulates sodium ion concentrationsin the extra cellular fluid.
  15. Hyponatremia
    A condition due to excessive water intake that results in net osmosis into tissue cells. This leads to severe metabolic disturbances.

    aka the sodium in blood is lower than normal.
  16. T or F?-Adipose tissue is one of the most hydrated of all tissues in the human
  17. T or F?-The most abundant cation in intracellular fluid is sodium.
  18. T or F?- Electrolytes determine most of the chemical and physical reactions of
    the body
  19. T or F?- Solutes, regardless of size, are able to move freely between
    compartments because water carries them along the osmotic gradients
  20. T or F?- The thirst center in the brain is located in the hypothalamus.
  21. T or F?- Dehydration can be caused by endocrine disturbances such as diabetes
    mellitus or diabetes insipidus.o
  22. T or F?- It is impossible to over hydrate because people need as much water as
    they can drink to carry out ordinary body functions.

    it will promote water gains in excess of electrolyte gains. sodium also decreses causing hyponaturemia. CAN CAUSE DRUNK BEHAVIOR and death.
  23. T or F?- Water imbalance, in which output exceeds in take, causing an imbalance inbody fluids, is termed dehydration.
  24. T or F?- Salts are lost from the body in perspiration, feces, and urine.
  25. T or F?- Hypoproteinemia reflects a condition of unusually high levels of plasma
    proteins and causes tissue edema.

    Its right but just remember but that's the Right definition for HYPO!!! HYPO!!! HYPLOW
  26. T or F?- Although the sodium content of the body may be altered, its
    concentration in the ECF remains stable because of immediate
    adjustments in water volume.
  27. T or F?- Sodium is pivotal to fluid and electrolyte balance and to the homeostasis
    of all body systems.
  28. T or F?- When aldosterone release is inhibited, sodium reabsorption cannot
    occur beyond the collecting tube..o
  29. T or F?- Aldosterone stimulates the Reabsorption of sodium while enhancing
    potassium secretion.
  30. T or F?- Pressure diuresis decreases blood volume and blood pressure
  31. T or F?- Aldosterone is secreted in response to low extracellular potassium
  32. T or F?- To remain properly hydrated, water intake must equal water output
  33. T or F?- The main way the kidney regulates potassium ions is to excrete them
  34. T or F?- Atrial natriuretic peptide reduces blood pressure and blood volume by
    inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasodilation and potassium
    and water retention..

    **ANP stimulates Vasodilation, fluid egression, increases glomerular filtration, salt and water excretion. can INHIBIT vasopressin, angiotensin 2, and aldosterone
  35. T or F?- Premenstrual edema may be due to enhanced reabsorption of sodium
  36. T or F?- Heavy consumption of salt substitutes high in potassium can present a
    serious clinical problem when aldosterone release is not normal.
  37. T or F?- Hypercalcemia causes muscle tetany.

    **it causes nausea and vomiting, excessive thirst,loss of appetite, frequent urination, lethargy and fatigue, and confusion.

    the tetany is in hypocalcemia, and magnesium deficiency.
  38. T or F?- The two hormones responsible for the regulation of calcium are pituitary hormone and calcitonin.

    ECF levels are regulated by PARATHYROID HORMONES. and CALCITONIN 

    **bones, kidneys,and small intestines are targeted when levels are too low in blood.
  39. T or F?- Calcitonin targets the bones and causes the release of calcium from
    storage when serum levels are low.

    Parathyroid picks it back up when levels are too low it promotes back up from the bones, small intestines, and kidneys. when they finally reached normal range PTH is inhibited
  40. T or F?- The normal pH of blood is 7.35-7.45
  41. T or F?- Most acidic substances (hydrogen ions) originate as byproducts of
    cellular metabolism
  42. T or F?- Weak acids are able to act as chemical buffering systems for the body
    because they partially dissociate.
  43. T or F?- The phosphate buffer system is relatively unimportant for buffering
    blood plasma

    ** its only important in buffering the PH of the ICF and urine.
  44. T or F?- The single most important blood buffer system is the bicarbonate buffer system

    **ability to buffer is limited by the amount of bicarbonate ions. and its the only extra cellular buffer.
  45. T or F?- One of the most powerful and plentiful sources of buffers is the protein
    buffer system..stems.

    • **moslty powerful for ICF 
    • PH rises- the carboxyl group realese hydrogen
    • PH low- amino acids groups accepts hydrogen
  46. T or F?- As ventilation increases and more carbon dioxide is removed from the
    blood, the hydrogen ion concentration of the blood decreases
  47. T or F?-Regulation of the acid‐base system is accomplished mainly through respiratory control,and the kidneys also play a small role.

    the acid balance refers to the regulation of hydrogen concentration in body fluids.
  48. T or F?-Severe damage to the respiratory system rarely will result in acid base
  49. T or F?-Respiratory acidosis results when lungs are obstructed and gas exchange is inefficient
    True , it cant remove all the carbon dioxide causing the body fluids like blood to become too acidic.

    Respiratory alkalosis- is low levels of CO2 because of breathing excessively.
  50. T or F?-Prolonged hyperventilation can cause alkalosis.
    True. the person is breathing too much causing low levels of CO2 in the body.
  51. T or F?- Thirst is always a reliable indicator of body water need
  52. T or F?- Blood acidity results in depression of the CNS, whereas blood alkalosis
    results in over excitement of the CNS.
    True, because excessive breathing is causing alot of activity in the body.
  53. 58- The body's water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the
    following ions?
    A-sodium ions
  54. the term HYPOtonic hydration refers to...
    B) A condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water.
  55. Hypoproteinemia is a condition of unusually low levels of plasma proteins. This problem is often characterized by ________.
    C) Tissue edema
  56. Which of the following hormones is important in the regulation of
    sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid?

    A) renin      B) aldosterone
    C) antidiuretic hormone     D) erythropoietin
  57. Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart. The influence of this hormone is to ________.
    D) Reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention.
  58. Respiratory acidosis can occur when 

    A) a runner has completed a very long marathon
    B) the kidneys secrete hydrogen ions
    C) a person's breathing is shallow due to obstruction
    D) a person consumes excessive amounts of antacids
    C)the persons breathing being too shallow.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. Which of the following two organs function as the most important physiological buffer systems?

    A) the adrenal glands and the testes
    B) the thyroid gland and the heart
    C) the lungs and the kidneys
    D) the stomach and the liver
    C)lungs and kineys
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. Which of the choices below is not an essential role of salts in the body? 

    A) neuromuscular activity
    B) membrane permeability
    C) secretory activity
    D) anabolism of proteins
    D) anabolism of proteins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. Which of the choices below exerts primary control over sodium levels in
    the body?

    A) water levels B) glucocorticoids
    C) ADH D) aldosterone
    D) aldosterone
  62. The fluid link between the external and internal environment is________
  63. Newborn infants have a relatively higher________ content in their
    ECF than do adults.
  64. Whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most
    ________ is found in the intracellular fluid.
    B) potassium
  65. Which of the following describes the distribution of sodium and
    potassium between cells and body fluids?

    A) equal amounts of each ion in the cells and body fluids
    B) little of either in the cells, but large amounts of each in the body
    C) Na+ mainly in the cells, K+ in the body fluids
    D) K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids
    D- potassium mainly in the cells and sodium in the body fluids.
  66. Problems with fluid, electrolyte, and acid base balance are particularly common in infants because of their ________.
    D)inefficient kidneys
  67. The single most important factor influencing potassium ion secretion is
    D)the PH of ICF
  68. The term alkaline reserve is used to describe the ________ buffer system
    D) Bi carbonate
  69. a falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to
    pneumonia or emphysema indicates ________.
    D)respiratory acidosis
  70. the movement of fluids between cellular compartments ______

    A) requires ATP for the transport to take place
    B) is regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces
    C) requires active transport
    D) involves filtration
    B) regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  71. What hormone reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events
    that promote vasoconstriction and sodium
    ion and water retention
    B) ANP
  72. Which of the following is not a method for regulating the hydrogen ion
    concentration in blood?

    A) respiratory changes B) chemical buffer systems
    C) renal mechanism D) diet
    D) Diet
  73. Which of the following is not a chemical buffer system? 
    A) phosphate B) nucleic acid
    C) bicarbonate D) protein
    B) Nucleic acid.
  74. Extracellular fluid in the human body is composed of all of the
    following except

    A) lymph and interstitial fluid     B) glucose
    C) cerebrospinal fluid        D) blood plasma�
  75. which of the following statements is true regarding fluid shifts? 

    A) Nonelectrolytes are the controlling factor in directing fluid shifts.
    B) There are always more positive electrolytes than negative in a
    solution; it is therefore impossible to follow fluid shifts.
    C) Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and
    therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts.
    D) Electrolytes are not as important as proteins in regulating fluid
    shifts in the body.
    c- Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than non electrolytes and have a greater chance for fluid shifts
  76. W hich of the following hormones is important in stimulating water
    conservation in the kidneys?
    81) _____
    A) thymosin B) atrial natriuretic peptide
    C) aldosterone D) antidiuretic hormone
    D)-anti diuretic hormone
  77. T he maintenance of the proper pH of the body fluids may be the result
    A) the active secretion of OH�] into the filtrate by the kidney tubule
    B) the operation of the various buffer systems in the stomach
    C) control of the acids produced in the stomach
    D) the control of respiratory ventilation
    D- Control of respiratory ventilation
  78. Which of the following is not a disorder of water balance? 
    A) edema or tissue swelling, which is usually due to an increased
    capillary hydrostatic pressure
    B) hypotonic hydration, in which sodium content is normal but water
    content is high
    C) excessive hydration due to excess ADH secretion
    D)  xcess water in interstitial spaces due to a low level of plasma
    C) excessive hydration due to excess ADH secretion
  79. The regulation of sodium ________.

    A) involves hypothalamic osmoreceptor detection of ion
    B) i s due to specific sodium receptors in the hypothalamus
    C) involves aldosterone, a hormone that increases sodium excretion
    in the kidneys
    D) is linked to blood pressure
    D) is linked to blood pressure
  80. select the correct statement about renal mechanisms of acid�]base

    A) The kidneys are not able to excrete phosphoric acid.
    B) Excreted hydrogen ions are unbound in the filtrate.
    C) The kidneys are the most important mechanism for eliminating all
    bicarbonate ions.
    D) kidney tubule cells are able to synthesize bicarbonate ion
    D) - Kidney tubule cells are able to synthesize bicarbonate ion
  81. Blood analysis indicates a low pH, and the patient is breathing rapidly.
    Given your knowledge of acid base balance, which of the following is
    most likely?

    A) metabolic alkalosis B) metabolic acidosis
    C) respiratory alkalosis D) respiratory acidosis
    B-Metabolic alkalosis.
  82. A patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicates an
    abnormally high value. What is the likely diagnosis?
    c-Metabolic alkalosis
  83. One of the major physiological factors that triggers thirst is ________.
    C- rise in polar osmoality.
  84. Annie has just eaten a large order of heavily salted french fries, some
    pickled eggs, and some cheese. How will consuming this much salt
    affect her physiology
    D- there will be a temporary increase in blood volume.
  85. The most important force causing net water flow across capillary walls
    is ________.
    A- hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood.
  86. Which of the following does not depend on the presence of electrolytes?
    A) membrane polarity
    B) maintenance of osmotic relations between cells and ECF
    C) neuromuscular excitability
    D) amount of body fat
    amount of body fat
  87. _______ occurs when carbon dioxide is eliminated faster than it is produced.
    respiratory alkalosis.
  88. The female hormone ________ seems to decrease sodium reabsorption, thus promoting sodium and water loss by the
  89. The preferred intracellular negative ion is ________.
    hydrogen phosphate
  90. The most important ECF buffer of HCl is ________
    sodium bicarbonate
  91. The most important hormone that regulates calcium ions in the
    body is ________.
    Parathyroid hormone
  92. Molecules that can act reversibly as acids or bases depending upon the pH of their environment are called ________.
  93. The breakdown of phosphorus‐containing proteins releases________ acid.
  94. Arterial blood pH below 7.35 is called ________
    acidemia or acidosis
  95. _______ reduces blood pressure and volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and the retention of sodium ions and water.me.
    atrial naturetic peptide
  96. What provides the shortest term mechanism for preventing acid base imbalances in the body? The longest termmechanism
    Chemical buffers act within a fraction of a second to resist a pH change. The longest term mechanism is the kidney system, which ordinarily requires from several hours to a day or more to effect changes in blood pH
  97. What is the effect of acidosis on the body? Of alkalosis
    • When the body is in acute acidosis, the nervous system becomes so severely depressed that the person goes into a coma and death soon follows. Alkalosis causes overexcitement of the nervous system. Characteristic signs include muscle tetany, extreme nervousness, and
    • convulsions. Death often results from respiratory arrest.K
  98. Describe the mechanisms by which the kidneys remove hydrogen ions from the body
    • Virtually all of the H+ that leaves the body in urine is secreted into the filtrate. The tubule
    • cells, including collecting ducts, appear to respond directly to the pH of the ECF and to
    • alter their rate of H+ secretion accordingly. The secreted H+ ions are obtained from the
    • dissociation of carbonic acid within the tubule cells. For each H+ ion actively secreted into
    • the tubule lumen, one sodium ion is reabsorbed into the tubule cell from the filtrate, thus
    • maintaining the electrochemical balance.
  99. Describe the influence of rising PTH levels on bone, the small intestine, and the kidneys.�6
    • P arathyroid hormone (PTH) activates osteoclasts that break down the bone matrix,
    • resulting in the release of Ca2+ and PO43�] to the blood. PTH enhances intestinal absorption
    • of Ca2+ indirectly by stimulating the kidneys to transform vitamin D to its active form,
    • which is necessary for calcium absorption by the small intestine. PTH increases the
    • reabsorption of calcium by the renal tubules, which simultaneously decreases phosphate
    • ion reabsorptionN��S�
  100. When the blood becomes hypertonic (too many solutes), ADH is released. What is the effect of ADH on the kidney tubules
    • they release of ADH causes the kidney tubules to reabsorb excess water, resulting in the
    • excretion of concentrated urine.
  101. Why would an infant with colic be suffering from respiratory alkalosis?
    • If the infant is uncomfortable and cries forcefully for long periods of time, this would be similar to hyperventilation. Hyperventilation would cause respiratory alkalosis because the
    • infant is losing carbon dioxide rapidly_
  102. How does the respiratory system influence the buffer systems of the body
    • The respiratory system maintains a constant bicarbonate level in the bloodstream by
    • outgassing carbon dioxide. In the event of a respiratory problem the bicarbonate system
    • might not be a constantH�
  103. identify and describe the operation of the three major chemical
    buffers of the body..ts.
    • T he bicarbonate buffer system (carbonic acid plus sodium bicarbonate) acts to tie up the
    • hydrogen ions released by a strong acid, thus converting it to a weaker acid, which lowers
    • the pH only slightly. For a strong base, the carbonic acid will be forced to donate more H+
    • to tie up the OH�] released by the base, with the net result of replacement of a strong base
    • by a weak one. The pH rise is very small. The phosphate buffer system, composed of the
    • sodium salts of dihydrogen phosphate and monohydrogen phosphate, acts in a similar
    • fashion to the bicarbonate system. NaH2PO4 acts as a weak acid; Na2HPO4 acts as a weak
    • base. Hydrogen ions released by strong acids are tied up in weak acids; strong bases are
    • converted to weak bases. Amino acids of the protein buffer system release H+ when the pH
    • begins to rise by dissociating carboxyl groups, or bind hydrogen ions with amine groups to
    • form NH3+ when the pH falls.
  104. When does a person experience greater thirst, during periods when ADH release is elicited or during periods when aldosterone release is elicited
    person experiences greater thirst during periods when ADH release is elicited.dy