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a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience
our capacity to learn new behaviors that enable us to cope with changing circumstances
How do we learn?
Association, Classical conditioning, Operant conditioning and Observation
our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence
we learn to associate two stimuli, in order to anticipate events that will follow (e.g. bell sounding before a certain stumil takes place, we become accustomed to the after stimulation after hearing a bell)
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to a stimulus (conditioned or unconditioned)
____'s work provided a basis for later behaviorists like John Watson and B. F. Skinner. Behaviorists focus on ____.
Pavlov’s, observable behavior
Unconditioned response (UR)
naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus
Unconditioned stimulus (UR)
naturally and automatically elicits a response
Conditioned response (CR)
learned response to a previously neutral stimulus
Conditioned stimulus (CS)—
an originally neutral stimulus that comes to trigger a conditioned response by being associated with an unconditioned stimulus
the initial stage in classical conditioning in which an association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus takes place.
Why is Timing is important when dealing with Acqusition?
In most cases, for conditioning to occur, the neutral stimulus needs to come before the unconditioned stimulus.
•The time in between the two stimuli should be about half a second.
- When the US (food) does not follow the CS (tone), CR
- (salivation) begins to decrease and eventually causes extinction
After a rest
- period, an extinguished CR (salivation) spontaneously recovers
- in weakened form.
But if the CS
- (tone) persists alone, the CR becomes extinct again.
- Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the CS is
- called generalization. Pavlov conditioned the dog’s salivation (CR) by using
- miniature vibrators (CS) on the thigh. When he subsequently stimulated other
- parts of the dog’s body, salivation dropped
- Pavlov’s greatest contribution to psychology is
- isolating elementary behaviors from more complex ones through objective
- scientific procedures
Early behaviorists believed that learned behaviors of various
animals could be reduced to ______ ____.
later behaviorists suggested that animals learn the
predictability of a stimulus, meaning they learn ____ or ____ of a stimulus.
expectancy or awareness
Classical conditioning, AKA Pavlovian
- type of learning in which a response naturally
- provoked by one stimulus comes to be provoked by a different, formerly neutral
Responses Over Time: Extinction and
explain with dog experiment
If Pavlov had stopped giving the dogs food
- after ringing the bell, eventually, they would stop drooling to the sound of
- the bell. This is known as extinction
If Pavlov had then gone back to dogs whose
- conditioned response of drooling had been extinguished, and again started
- giving them food after the bell rang, he would have seen reconditioning
- gradual disappearance of a
- conditional response when a conditional stimulus no longer predicts appearance
- of the unconditioned stimulus
- the reappearance of the conditioned response
- after extinction and without further pairings of the conditioned and
- unconditioned stimuli
- phenomenon in which a conditioned response is elicited by stimuli that are
- similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus
- Might drool to a similar bell
- a process
- through which individuals learn to differentiate among similar stimuli and
- respond appropriately to each one
- Ex. babies crying; there is a cry when they are hungry,
- angry, and in pain
Describe Biological Predisposition according to slides
- Some associations are more quickly learned than others.
- Nausea and the taste of food
- Fear of spiders, snakes
- Ecologically relevant—similar to how stimuli are associated in the natural environment
- Evolutionarily adaptive
- a type of learning in which a behavior is
- strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher
- —rewarded behavior is
- likely to recur
associations between stimuli (CS and US). Operant conditioning, on the other
hand, forms an association between behaviors and the resulting events
- reinforcers guide behavior towards the desired target
- behavior through successive approximations.
- event that strengthens or increases the frequency of the preceding response
- strengthens a response by presenting a (usually) pleasurable stimulus
Strength of reinforcement varies with circumstances
- response by removing an aversive stimulus
An innately reinforcing stimulus like food or drink.
- A reinforcer that occurs instantly after a behavior. A
- rat gets a food pellet for a bar press