Learning Psyc 2000

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Learning Psyc 2000
2010-06-28 17:21:34

summer 2010
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  1. —Learning
    a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience
  2. —Adaptability
    our capacity to learn new behaviors that enable us to cope with changing circumstances
  3. How do we learn?
    —Association, Classical conditioning, —Operant conditioning and —Observation
  4. Association
    our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence
  5. Classical conditioning
    we learn to associate two stimuli, in order to anticipate events that will follow (e.g. bell sounding before a certain stumil takes place, we become accustomed to the after stimulation after hearing a bell)
  6. Respondent behavior
    behavior that occurs as an automatic response to a stimulus (conditioned or unconditioned)
  7. —____'s work provided a basis for later behaviorists like John Watson and B. F. Skinner. Behaviorists focus on ____.
    Pavlov’s, observable behavior
  8. Unconditioned response (UR)
    naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus
  9. Unconditioned stimulus (UR)
    naturally and automatically elicits a response
  10. Conditioned response (CR)
    learned response to a previously neutral stimulus
  11. Conditioned stimulus (CS)
    an originally neutral stimulus that comes to trigger a conditioned response by being associated with an unconditioned stimulus
  12. Acquisition
    the initial stage in classical conditioning in which an association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus takes place.
  13. Why is Timing is important when dealing with Acqusition?

    In most cases, for conditioning to occur, the neutral stimulus needs to come before the unconditioned stimulus.

    The time in between the two stimuli should be about half a second.
  14. Extinction
    • When the US (food) does not follow the CS (tone), CR
    • (salivation) begins to decrease and eventually causes extinction
  15. Spontaneous Recovery
    • —After a rest
    • period, an extinguished CR (salivation) spontaneously recovers
    • in weakened form.
    • — But if the CS
    • (tone) persists alone, the CR becomes extinct again.
  16. Stimulus Generalization
    • Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the CS is
    • called generalization. Pavlov conditioned the dog’s salivation (CR) by using
    • miniature vibrators (CS) on the thigh. When he subsequently stimulated other
    • parts of the dog’s body, salivation dropped
  17. Stimulus Discrimination
    • Discrimination is the

    • learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli
    • that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
  18. Pavlov’s Legacy
    • Pavlov’s greatest contribution to psychology is
    • isolating elementary behaviors from more complex ones through objective
    • scientific procedures
  19. Early behaviorists believed that learned behaviors of various
    animals could be reduced to ______ ____.
    mindless mechanisms.
  20. later behaviorists suggested that animals learn the
    predictability of a stimulus, meaning they learn
    ____ or ____ of a stimulus.
    expectancy or awareness
  21. Habituation
    • we learn to ignore unchanging

    • stimuli
    • Ex. you don’t notice certain smells after being in a place for a while
  22. Associative
    • learning that certain events occur together

    • Ex. your dog knows you are about

    • to go on a walk when you grab the leash
  23. Classical conditioning, AKA Pavlovian
    • type of learning in which a response naturally
    • provoked by one stimulus comes to be provoked by a different, formerly neutral
    • stimulus
  24. neutral
    • is one that does not usually produce the

    • behavior being studied.
  25. Conditioned
    Responses Over Time: Extinction and
    Spontaneous Recovery

    explain with dog experiment

    • If Pavlov had stopped giving the dogs food

    • after ringing the bell, eventually, they would stop drooling to the sound of
    • the bell. This is known as extinction
    • If Pavlov had then gone back to dogs whose

    • conditioned response of drooling had been extinguished, and again started
    • giving them food after the bell rang, he would have seen reconditioning
  26. reconditioning
    • quick relearning of a CR

    • following extinction
  27. extinction
    • gradual disappearance of a
    • conditional response when a conditional stimulus no longer predicts appearance
    • of the unconditioned stimulus
  28. Spontaneous
    • the reappearance of the conditioned response
    • after extinction and without further pairings of the conditioned and
    • unconditioned stimuli
  29. Stimulus
      1. a
      2. phenomenon in which a conditioned response is elicited by stimuli that are
      3. similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus
        1. Might drool to a similar bell
  30. Stimulus
      1. a process
      2. through which individuals learn to differentiate among similar stimuli and
      3. respond appropriately to each one
        1. Ex. babies crying; there is a cry when they are hungry,
        2. angry, and in pain
  31. Describe Biological Predisposition according to slides
    • —Some associations are more quickly learned than others.
    • —Nausea and the taste of food
    • —Fear of spiders, snakes
    • —Why?
    • —Ecologically relevant—similar to how stimuli are associated in the natural environment
    • —Evolutionarily adaptive
  32. Phobias
    • irrational fears of particular

    • things, activities, or situations
  33. Operant
    • a type of learning in which a behavior is
    • strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher
  34. Operant
    • behavior designed to operate on the

    • environment in a way that will gain something desired or avoid something
    • unpleasant
  35. —Law
    • rewarded behavior is
    • likely to recur
  36. ______ forms
    associations between stimuli (CS and US). Operant conditioning, on the other
    hand, forms an association between behaviors and the resulting events
    Classical conditioning
  37. Shaping
    • reinforcers guide behavior towards the desired target
    • behavior through successive approximations.
  38. Reinforcement
    • any
    • event that strengthens or increases the frequency of the preceding response
  39. Positive reinforcement
    • strengthens a response by presenting a (usually) pleasurable stimulus

    —Strength of reinforcement varies with circumstances
  40. Negative reinforcement
    • strengthens a
    • response by removing an aversive stimulus

    —Not punishment!
  41. Primary
    An innately reinforcing stimulus like food or drink.
  42. Conditioned
    • A learned reinforcer
    • that gets its reinforcing power through association with the primary
    • reinforcer.
  43. Immediate
    • A reinforcer that occurs instantly after a behavior. A
    • rat gets a food pellet for a bar press
  44. Delayed
    • A
    • reinforcer that is delayed in time for a certain behavior.