# Real-World: Throwing

Home > Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

1. Vertical Ground Reaction Force
To create a larger vertical ground reaction force, you must perform the baseball throw on the hardest surface available.
2. Coefficient of Friction
To create a larger coefficient of friction, the bottom surface of the shoes that you are wearing must have 2 characteristics:

(1) the material of the soles must be soft

(2) the surface of the soles must be rough
3. Cleat Force
To create a larger cleat force, the cleats attached to the bottom of your shoes must have 3 characteristics:

(1) the must be able to penetrate the ground surface

(2) the must be long

(3) the must be wide
4. Muscle Force
To create a larger muscle force, three factors that influence the size of the muscle force must be considered.

(1) Muscle Size

-a muscle with a larger physiological cross

-sectional area will create more muscle force-increase via resistance training

(2) Muscle Length

-muscles stretched to 120% of their natural resting length generate the most muscle force

(3) Speed of the Muscle Contraction

-muscles that are concentrically contracted at slower speeds generate greater force than muscles that are concentrically contracted at faster speeds
5. Moment Arm
The distance from the joint's axis of rotation to the line of pull of the muscle force.

To increase the moment arm distance, you would need to move the line of pull of the muscle force further away from the joint's axis of rotation.

One method for moving the line of pull of the muscle force would be to change the locations of the origin and insertion points for the muscle. It would be unethical to perform this type of surgery.

The only way we can change the moment arm distance is by changing the angle of the joint. When the long axes of the two bones connected at a joint are aligned long axis to long axis (straight line), the moment arm distance is the smallest.
6. Mass
SHORT-TERM

(1) wear the lightest clothing possible

(2) wear the lightest shoes possible

LONG-TERM

(1) lost fat mass
The distance from the joint's axis of rotation to the center of mass of the body component.

Individuals with shorter bones will have shorter radii of resistance. There is nothing we can do to decrease bone length.

We can change the radius of resistance by changing the angles of the joints within the body component being rotated. We can decrease the radius of resistance by rotating the body component closer to the joint axis of rotation.
8. Application Time of Each Joint Torque
To increase the application time of the concentric shoulder girdle left rotation joint torque:

DURING THE PREP PHASE

the shoulder girdle must be right rotated

DURING THE EXECUTION PHASE

a concentric shoulder girdle left rotation joint torque is applied until the shoulder girdle is maximally left rotated

To increase the application time of the concentric right wrist flexion joint torque:

DURING THE PREP PHASE

the right wrist must be extended

DURING THE EXECUTION PHASE

a concentric right wrist flexion joint torque is applied until the right wrist is maximally flexed

To increase the application time of the concentric right shoulder internal rotation joint torque:

DURING THE PREP PHASE

right shoulder must be externally rotated

DURING THE EXECUTION PHASE

a concentric right shoulder internal rotation joint torque is applied until the right shoulder is maximally, internally rotated

To increase the application time of the concentric left hip flexion joint torque:

DURING THE PREP PHASE

the left hip must be extended

DURING THE EXECUTION PHASE

a concentric left hip flexion joint torque is applied until the left hip is maximally flexed

To increase the application time of the concentric left hip internal rotation joint torque:

DURING THE PREP PHASE

the left hip must be externally rotated

DURING THE EXECUTION PHASE

a concentric left hip internal rotation joint torque is applied until the left hip is maximally, internally rotated