Infection Control

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Infection Control
2013-11-24 10:39:10
Infection Control

Infection Control
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  1. Nosocomial infections
    infections acquired in a hospital
  2. How are nosocomial infections prevented?
    Hand hygiene & breaking links in the chain of infection.
  3. 1st link of infection
    Infectious agent:  virus, bacteria, fungus, etc
  4. 2nd link of infection
    Reservoir:  humans, animals, equipment, food, etc.
  5. 3rd link of infection
    Portal of exit:  coughing, sneezing, blood, etc.
  6. 4th link of infection
    Mode of transportation:  shaking hands, airborne, droplet, etc.
  7. 5th link of infection
    Portal of entry:  mucus membranes, cut, body orifices
  8. 6th link of infection
    Suspetible host:  elderly, newborn, patient
  9. 2 levels of CDC precautions
    standard & isolation precautions
  10. OSHA is the fed'l body charged w/ what
    preventing and minimizing  employee exposure to blood-borne pathogens
  11. Standard precautions are barrier protection & work control practices to prevent what
    direct skin contact w/ blood, bodily fluids and tissues from all persons
  12. mucous membranes
    eyes, ears, nose, mouth, & throat
  13. CDC
    Center for Disease Control & Prevention
  14. Hand hygiene is used regardless if blood is visible when what
    exposed to non-intact skin, mucous membrane, blood, and all body fluids, secretions, & excretions except sweat
  15. Standard precautions used regardless if blood is visible, while Universal Precautions are used when
    blood is visible
  16. PPE
    Personal Protective Equip
  17. 2nd level of precaution is what & depends on what
    isolation & mode of transportation (airborne, droplet, or contact
  18. OHSA requires training how often
  19. Gloves worn when
    dealing w/ blood, fluids, and tissue samples
  20. Face shields worn when
    danger of spray, spatter, or aerosol formation
  21. Needles/sharps disposed of where
    puncture proof container w/o recapping
  22. Not allowed at work station
    food or drink, or chewing of gum
  23. Isolation procedures decrease the....
    transmission of infectious microorganisms
  24. Protective (reverse) isolation
    patients are highly susceptible to infection (immuno-compromised) & need to be protected
  25. UP
    Univeral Precautions
  26. BSI
    Body Substance Isolation
  27. Strict (complete) isolation
    patients are highly CONTAGIOUS
  28. define infection
    invasion & growth of microorganism in body causing disease
  29. Infectios orgranisms
  30. Pathogens
    virus, bacteria, fungi, protists (malaria)
  31. Microorganisms may be present in
    blood, urine, feces, tissue, bodily fluids (secretions/excretions)
  32. Varicella
  33. Herpes zoster
    shingles, recurrent infection of chickenpox virus
  34. Ebola
    viruses, severe multisystem failure syndrome, hemorrhage
  35. Viruses causing liver disease
    HEP A, B, C
  36. Spread by fecal-oral
    HEP A
  37. Hantavirus
    deadly viral respiratory disease
  38. Influenza
    virus strains, respiratory disease
  39. Parvovirus
    erythema infectiosum (5th disease), rash in childhood
  40. Pneumonia
  41. Acinetobacter infection
    bacteria in soil & water, on skin of healthy people.  Outbreaks in ICU
  42. Tuberculosis/TB
    fatal lung disease
  43. VRE/enterococci
    antibiotic-resistant bacteria
  44. Chain of infection requires continuous link of 3 elements
    source, transmission, susceptible host
  45. Source
    person infected w/ pathogen
  46. Susceptible host
    patient or healthcare worker
  47. Transmission
    needle puncture, airborne droplet (hidden), etc
  48. Reservoir
    carries & transmits agent/pathogen w/o being sick
  49. Infectious agents
    bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, rickettsia
  50. Method/mode of infection
    CIV- by contact, inhalation, vehicle, vector
  51. 3 Contact transmissions
    direct, indirect, droplet
  52. Droplets
    caused by coughing, sneezing, or talking w/i 3 ft of ears, nose, mouth & are (greater than) >5 microns in size. use surgical mask.
  53. 3 Vehicle transmissions
    contaminated food, water, drugs
  54. 3 Vector tranmissions
    insect, animal, anthropod/spider
  55. Droplet disease example
    chickenpox, influenza, respiratory, measles.
  56. Vehicle disease example
    E. coli/salmonella
  57. Vector disease example
    W. Nile virus, Lyme disease (ticks)
  58. Inhalation disease example
    TB.  Also, close patient contact is not necessary b/c of droplets long life & light weight of (less than) <5 microns.
  59. Fomites (indirect contact)
    An inanimate object or substance that is capable of transmitting infectious organisms
  60. non-intact skin
    entry thru visible & invisible preexisting breaks in the skin
  61. Precetaneous entry
    intact skin gets needle stick or other sharps (glass) cut skin
  62. Airborne transmission, use what
    N95 respirator (if TB suspected)
  63. Ingestion of biohazards, why
    failed to use proper hand hygiene
  64. Permucosal
    thru mucous membranes (ears, nose, mouth)
  65. 1996 CDC combined 2 things to make new what
    UP (universal precautions) & BSI (body substance isolation) to make Standard Precautions
  66. Standard Precautions assume what
    ALL blood, body fluids, non-intact tissue/skin, etc are capable of carrying a pathogen
  67. Transmission-based precautions + Standard precautions
    used in hospitals when patient is suspected of being infected
  68. Contact & Droplet precautions
    gloves, gown, surgical mask, & eyewear.  if w/i 3 feet for droplets
  69. Airborne precautions
    special HEPA filter, N95 respirator for particles carried by air or on dust, special negative air pressure ventilated room, plus C&D precautions
  70. Microorganisms or
    microbes or
  71. Majority of microbes are...
    non-pathogenic (causing disease)
  72. Microbes causing disease (pathogenic) are
  73. Infectious/causative agent
    pathogen causing an infection
  74. Infections can be 1 of 2 things
    local (restricted symptoms) or systemic (whole body affected)
  75. Communicable infections
    person to person pathogenic microbes causing infection
  76. Nosocomial infection
    acquired at a hospital or healthcare facility
  77. Most common nosocomial infection
    urinary tract infection
  78. HICPAC
    Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee
  79. HICPAC sets 2 precautions
    standard & transmission-based
  80. IA
    • 6 chains of infection
    • Infecting Agent
    • Reservoir
    • Exit point
    • Means of transport
    • Entry point
    • Suseptible Host
  81. C
    • 5 modes of transmission
    • Contact (direct or indirect)
    • Droplets
    • Airborne
    • Vector
    • Vehicle
  82. Vector transmission by
    living insects, animals, or anthorpods
  83. Vehicle transmission by
    Non-living food, water, or drugs
  84. Immune
    developed antibodies resistant to a virus
  85. 6 proper ways to prevent transmission of microbes and breaks the chain of infection
    • Hand washing
    • PPE
    • Waste disposal
    • Isolation
    • Insect & rodent control
    • Decontamination of surfaces & instruments
  86. PPD
    Purified Protein Derivative for TB status
  87. RPR
    Rapid Plasma Reagin testing for Syphilis, diarrheal & skin diseases
  88. 12 steps for proper hand washing
    • Remove
    • No touch sink
    • Faucet on CPT
    • Wet w/ warm
    • Soap
    • Rub/friction
    • Scrub all
    • Remove under nails (4-8 15 seconds, 3 x's row, row)
    • Rinse down
    • Repeat if needed
    • Dry CPT
    • Faucet off CPT
  89. 7 required hand washing situations
    • b/a each patient contact
    • b/t diff procedures same patient
    • b/a on/off gloves
    • b4 leaving lab
    • b4 any breaks
    • b/a WC
    • when visibly or knowingly contaminated
  90. Order of putting on/off of Protective clothing
    • gown
    • mask
    • gloves over cuff of gown

    • gloves
    • mask touch string only
    • gown & promptly wash hands
  91. OSHA
    Occupational Safety & Health Act
  92. HDV only present if
    have HBV