SHM and Waves
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Simple Harmonic Motion
- 1.) Acceleration is directly proportional to displacement
- 2.) Acceleration is always directed towards the equilibrium position.
- 3.) Acceleration and displacement are in opposite directions.
- to-and-fro movement.
- Something which vibrates from side to side with a repeated cycle of motion
A vibration which vibrates at its own natural frequency
Forced vibration / oscillation
When an object is forces to oscillate at a particular frequency by an external oscillator giving it energy.
The frequency at which an object oscillates with greatest amplitude
In any oscillating system there is a restoring force.
What is a restoring force?
The force which acts to drive the system back towards equilibrium position during an oscillation
In an oscillating system including SHM there is constant interchange between ________ and ________ assuming there are no damping forces.
Potential energy and Kinetic energy
Forces acting on an oscillating system that tend to reduce the total energy of the system
(Friction at pivot or air resistance tend to reduce amplitude of system)
The frequency by which the driven system will oscillate at the frequency imposed by the driving agent
When the frequency of a forced vibration is equal to the natural frequency of the vibrating object and thus creating a maximum amplitude.
There is most efficient transfer of energy from outside to oscillating system
Oscillation of particles is perpendicular to the direction of wave motion
Motion of particle is parallel to wave direction
Distance between 2 adjacent points in phase
Time taken for one oscillation to occur
The maximum displacement from the mean position
The number of vibrations per second
Progressive wave properties :
- Wave profile moves with wave speed
- Net transfer of energy along wave direction
- Particles on same wave have the same amplitude
- Adjacent particles are out of phase
- Wave profile is static
- No transfer of energy
- Adjacent particles have different amplitudes: Nodes: Points of zero amp. Antinodes: Points of max amp
- Adjacent particles are in phase
Principle of superposition
When two or more waves cross, the resultant displacement is equal to the sum of the individual displacement
Takes place when path difference is a whole number of wavelength
When path difference is one and a half wavelength
Superposition is only possible when light is:
- ( Having a fixed phase difference )
Light having a single wavelength ex. sodium lamps and lasers
What does Young's Double Slit experiment show?
The effect of the principle of superposition. Bright and dark fringes are formed on screen due to destructive and constructive interference between the two overlapping waves.
What does fringe separation depend on?
- distance between slit S1 and S2 , d
- Distance between double slit and screen, D
- Wavelength of light
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