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2010-06-26 17:37:23

Tissue and Integumentary systems
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  1. 4 Tissue Types
    • Epithelial- covers the outer and inner surfaces of the body
    • Connective- connects parts of the body and protects organs
    • Nervous- nerve cells and supporting (glial)
    • Muscle- skeletal, cardiac, smooth
  2. Epithelial Cells
    • line inner and outer surfaces
    • "gatekeeper" everything that enters the body must go through it
    • 1 layer- simple, multiple layers- stratified, pseudostratified- false stratified. transitional- simple as tissue stretches
    • polarity- sides are functionally and structurally different; top exposed to outer (apical), bottom exposed to inner (basal)
    • tight junctions bind together so things can't get through that aren't supposed to
  3. Squamous Simple Ephithelial Cells
    • found where materials cross a membrane
    • flat, with disk shaped nucleus
    • allow passage of materials by diffusion when protection isn't important
    • ex: kidney, air sacs of lungs, capillaries
  4. Stramous Stratified Epithelial Cells
    • found where mechanical abrasion occurs
    • protects underlying tissues in areas subject to abrasion
    • base layers are cuboidal or columnar
    • keratinized
    • ex: esophagus, mouth, epidermis
  5. Cuboidal Simple Epithelial Cells
    • single layer of cublike cells
    • secretion and absorption
    • ex: kidney tubules, ovary
  6. Columnar Simple Epithelial Cells
    • single layer of tall cells with oval nucleus
    • absorption, secreation of mucous, enzymes, cilary action
    • ex: non ciliated- digestive tract, gallbladder, ciliated- uterus
  7. Pseudostratified Epithelial Cells
    • single layer of cells of differing heights with nuclei at differing levels
    • for secretion of mucous, cilary action
    • ex: male sperm ducts, respiratory tract, trachea
  8. Transitional Epithelial Cells
    • looks like stratified squamous and cuboidal surface cells- dome shaped
    • stretchy to permit distension of urina organ by urine
    • ex: lines ureter, bladder and urethra
  9. Merocrine
    cell pushes out the protein but stays intact
  10. Holocrine
    cells explodes and dies, secreting the protein
  11. Apocrine
    part of the cell breaks off, releasing material in the middle, then it regenerates itself
  12. Connective Proper
    • six types for binding, resist mechanical stress/tension
    • made of ground substance which contains the cells and fibers (collagen, elastic, reticular)
    • Loose areolar, loose adipose, loose reticular, dense regular, dense irregular, dense elastic
  13. Loose Areolar Connective Proper
    • allows for sliding
    • matrix of fibroblast cells, macrophages,
    • wraps and cushions organs, holds fluid
    • ex: under skin, around organs, capillaries
  14. Loose adipose Connective Proper Tissue
    • sparse matrix of closely packed fat cells
    • reserves food fuel, insulation, supports and protects organs
    • ex: under areolar, breasts, around kidneys and eyeballs
  15. Loose Reticular Connective Proper Tissue
    • network of reticular fibers which holds cells together as an organ
    • soft internal skeleton that supports other cell types such as white blood or macrophages
    • ex: lymphnoid organs (spleem, thymus)
  16. Dense Regular Connective Proper Tissue
    • parallel collagen fibers and fibroblasts
    • attach muscle to bones or muscle to muscle
    • withstands great stress in 1 direction bc fibers run in 1 direction
    • ex: tendons, ligaments
  17. Dense Irregular Connective Proper Tissue
    • irregularly arranged collagen fibers and fibroblast cells
    • can withstand tension in any direction, structural strength
    • ex: dermis, part of digestive tract, in dermis with loose areolar
  18. Dense Elastic Connective Proper Tissue
    • allows recoil of tissue following stretching
    • maintains flow pulse through arteries/lungs
    • ex: walls of large arteries, bronchial tubes, lungs, ligaments
  19. Hyaline Cartilage
    • firm like bone but flexible made of collagen fiber network
    • supports, cushions, resists stree
    • chondrocyte in lacuna produce chondroblasts
    • ex: nose, ends of long bones, costal cartilages, trachea, larynx
  20. Elastic Cartilage
    • more flexible than hyaline
    • chondrocyte in lacuna
    • ex: ear, epiglottis
  21. Fibrocartilage
    • similar matrix but less firm than hyaline
    • shock absorber, thick collagen fibers
    • ex: vertebrae, knees
  22. Epidermal Layers
    • Stratum Basale
    • Stratum Spinosum
    • Stratum Granulosum
    • Stratum Corneum
  23. Stratum Basale
    • living, dividing epidermal cels
    • Form layers and grow upwards as they divide
    • Melanocyte cells which produce melanin surround the cells. This acts a sunscreen and produces skin color that gets picked up by dividing cells and carried to the surface
  24. Stratum Spinosum
    • keratinized cells are still alive but not dividing
    • epidermal dendritic cells patrol for immunization
  25. Stratum granulosum
    3rd layer- dying cells
  26. Stratum Corneum
    4th layer -dead and kerotinized outer cells
  27. Sudoriferous glands secret...
    sweat- eccrine by merocrine
  28. Sebaceous glands secret...
    oil by holocrine
  29. Role of Cartilage in Bones
    • physical support and protection- form bone like structures
    • hyaline important for child development of bone
  30. Flat Bones
    • flat, compact surface and and spongy bone called diploe
    • spongy bones resist compression- made of trabeculae (honey comb)
    • provide strength but don't weigh a lot
  31. Long Bones
    • spongy inside, compact outside called periosteum membrane where blood veins enter through
    • medullary cavity on inside- holllow and lined with endosteum where bone marrow is which creates white blood cells
    • proximal and distal epiphyses- end of bone covered in articular/hyaline cartilage
    • Diaphysis- tube down long part of bone constructed of compact bone, surrounds medullary cavity
    • Osteons- in compact bone, circular structure blood veings come through. Lined with lamellae (circumferential lamellae wrap osteon) supported by collagen fibers which run in opposite directions circular to provide strength- no breaks in twisting
    • blood transported through bone by osteocytes which are connected by canals called canaliculi found in the lacunae b/w lamellae
    • made of calcium- 39%, organics (collagen), phosphate
    • Hydroxylapatite- chemical that crystalizes around collagen fibers
  32. Cell Types in Bones
    • Osteogenic
    • Osteoblast
    • Osteocyte
    • Osteoclast
  33. Osteogenic Cells
    stem cells- differentiate into the other types
  34. Osteoblast
    • bone forming
    • in periosteurn and endosteurn
  35. Osteocyte Cell
    • Maintains bone structure
    • in lacunae of osteon
  36. Osteoclast Cell
    • breaks down bone to release calcium in bloodstream
    • in periosteurn and endostern
  37. Bone Development in Flat Cells
    Intramembrane Ossification
    • 1. Start as Fibrous connective tissue called mesenchymal cells which produce collagen fibers
    • 2. osteoblasts secrete osteoid, calcifies to become bone. some blasts trapped in bone become osteocytes which complete spongy bone and trabeculae around nerve blood vessels
    • 3. Mesenchymal cells form periosteum and compact bone in lamellae
    • ex: skull, scapula, sternum
  38. Bone development- endrochondral ossification of long, short, and irregular
    • 1) starts as hyaline cartilage, osteoblasts destroy hyaline to create bone
    • 2) Secondary ossification occurs in epiphyses, a little hyaline stays in epiphyseal plate (growth plate)
  39. Remodeling of bone
    Osteoclasts destroy while osteoblasts rebuild
  40. Appositional growth
    due to osteoblasts in periosteum which lay new bone matrix which widens the bone
  41. Drop or Raise in Calcium levels
    Parathyroid- PTH hormone
  42. Bone Repair- fractures
    • area fills with blood to begin healing
    • fibroblasts make new fibers, chondroblasts make new cartilage, and osteoblasts make new bone, 1st spongy then remodeling
  43. Fibrous Joints
    • Sutures- Synarthrotic
    • Syndesmoses- Synarthrotic/Amphiarthrotic
    • Gomphoses- Synarthrotic
  44. Cartilages
    • Synchondroses- synarthrotic- hyaline cartilage
    • Symphyses- Amphiarthrotic- fibrocartilage
  45. Suture
    • held by a very short collagen fibers, bones interlock- only in skull
    • synarthrotic
  46. Syndesmosis
    • joints held by ligament
    • ankle
    • synarthrotic/amphiarthrotic
  47. Gomphoses
    • "peg in socket"
    • ex: tooth, synarthrotic
    • periodontal ligament holds in place
  48. Synorial
    • Diarthrotic
    • sealed sac of liquid to allow flexibility and minimize friction
    • ligament and fibrous capsule encase synovial
    • membrane and hyaline to keep in place
    • secrets hyaluronan/hyaluronic acid
    • ex: knee
  49. Tendon Sheath and Bursae
    • Prevents friction and protects, has synovial fluid
    • Sheath- wraps like hotdog bun around tendon
    • Bursae- flat sac lined with synovial membrane, rolls when bones move