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The control instruments display what?
Immediate attitude and power indications
The control instruments are:
The performance instruments indicate what?
The actual performance of the aircraft
Basic performance instruments include:
Other performance instruments include:
- AOA gauge
- AOA indexer
- Turn and Bank indicator
Power control is maintained by referencing the _______
An incorrect pitch setting will be noticed on what instruments?
- VSI will give the first indications
Failure to maintain wings level will be apparent on what instrument?
An incorrect power setting will be seen on the ____ first, then the ____ if left uncorrected.
Procedural steps for the control and performance concept are:
- Establish: set/maintain attitude and power setting
- Trim: neutralize pressures
- Cross-check: performance instruments
- Adjust: make specific adjustments
Use composite reference as your primary attitude reference in place of ____.
General rule for crab when flying at 200 KIAS in the pattern.
1° of crab is required for approximately 3 knots of crosswind
A heading deviation is caused by?
not keeping your wings level and not keeping the turn and bank ball centered
Heading deviation rules of thumb:
- Deviation < 30° - use bank angle equal to number of degrees off
- Deviation > 30° - use 30° of bank to make correction
An altitude deviation will appear where?
- on the altimeter
- VSI will move first but will not reflect on altitude indicator unless significant
- Do not chase the VSI
Airspeed deviations show up where first?
- Normally caused by an incorrect power setting
Set up your altitude correction using a ______.
- definite pitch change
- Deviations <300' - 2° of pitch
How do you determine you lead point on turns?
- Use 1/3 your bank angle.
- 30° bank turn requires 10° lead on heading
- 45° bank turn requires 15° lead on heading
- 60° bank turn requires 20° lead on heading
Constant airspeed descent:
maintain your airspeed by adjusting pitch
What is the PAT technique when used to make smooth, continuous corrections?
- Power - lead with power change
- Attitude - set pitch attitude
- Trim - trim off stick forces
Constant rate descent:
maintain constant airspeed and your desired descent rate by varying pitch and power
Lead points for a climb to level-off:
10% of VSI
What is empty field myopia?
condition in which the eyes, having nothing readily available in the visual field in which to focus on, focus automatically at about 9'
What is visual accommodation?
time it takes your eyes to focus, 2-3 seconds
What is binocular vision?
your mind tends to ignore things you don't see with both eyes
How does your pitch in a climbing turn compare to that in a straight climb?
Constant airspeed climbing turn, your pitch attitude will be lower than a straight climb
How does your pitch in a descending turn compare to that in a straight descent?
- Constant speed descending turns, pitch attitude will be lower than during a wings level descent
- Steeper the bank, more rapidly you will descend
Effects of trim and power changes:
- Acceleration - left/down
- Power addition - right/down
- Deceleration - right/up
- Power reduction - left/up