HIV flashcards

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HIV flashcards
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  1. HIV Definition
    Disease of the human Immune system caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus
  2. How is HIV transferred?
    Contaminated blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy, deliver, or breastfeeding
  3. ACUTE INFECTION OF HIV
    • VIRUS PRODUCED IN THE BLOOD
    • SYMPTOMS: FLU-LIKE
  4. Clinical Latency of HIV
    • HIV reproduces at low levels, but still active
    • Symptoms: may/may not
  5. AIDS
    • CD4 count drops below 200 cells/mm3
    • Symptoms: without treatment, survival is 3 yrs
  6. What race has the most # of AIDS diagnoses?
    African American, Hispanic, White
  7. What is the # 1 transmission of AIDS?
    Male to Male sexual contact
  8. Top # of Deaths in States?
    CA, FL, TX, NY, GA
  9. How many ppl living with AIDS?
    34.2 million
  10. Sources of HIV?
    Blood, Semen, Vag secretion, Preg, Breast Milk, Years, CSF, Alveolar fluid, Saliva
  11. What are the initial symptoms of HIV?
    flu-like, loss of appetite, candidiasis, Kaposi’s Sarcoma, Oppurtunistic infections
  12. What Defines AIDS?
    • CD4 count <200 cells/mm^3
    • increase in HIV p24 antigen
  13. How can HIV NOT be spread? 5
    • insect bites
    • Aerosol exposure
    • Body contact without body fluid exposure
    • Kissing
  14. Transmission Human bite?
    Human Bite through skin
  15. Safe Sex?
    Latex Condoms
  16. Are HIV patients aware they have the disease?
    24% unaware
  17. HIV Screening:
    • ELIZA
    • EIA
    • Western Blot confirmation (antibody detection)
  18. Are false positives common with HIV screening?
    NO
  19. When does seroconversion happen?
    3-6 months
  20. Initial infection of AIDS:
    8-12 years or greater
  21. Average age of AIDS deathL
    • 10-24 years
    • 3 yrs if not treated
    • NO LONGER IMMEDIATE DEATH SENTENCE
  22. Oral HIV test OraSure:
    • Oral mucosal transudate
    • 99.7% accurate
    • 72 hours
  23. Most common HIV treatment:
    combo of 1 non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor and 2 nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors
  24. Opportunistic Infections with HIV:
    • Candidiasis
    • Cryptococcosis
    • Cryptosporidiosis
    • Cytomegalovirus
    • Atypical Mycobacteria
  25. HIV related podiatric Conditions:Dermatologic
    • -Onychomycosis / tinea pedis
    • -Proximal white superficial onychomycosis
    • -Mosaic plantar verucae
    • -Itchy folliculitis
    • -Severe psoriatic flares
    • -Xerotic eczema
    • -vasculitis
  26. Vascualr with HIV
    • Edema
    • increase chance of DVT
  27. MS with HIV
    • Non-specific arthritis
    • Polymyositis
    • Reiter’s syndrome
    • Psoriatic arthritis
  28. Neurologic HIV related:
    • Motor neuropathy
    • Spinal cord dysfunction
    • Peripheral Sensory neuropathy
  29. Protease inhibitors:
    prevents packaging of viral proteins into infectious virions
  30. Drugs for HIV:
    • 1. Nucleoside Analogs
    • 2. Non-nucleoside Analogs
    • 3. Protease inhibitors:
    • 4. Fusion Inhibitors (cell entry blockers)
    • 5. Integrase inhibitor-Raltegravir
  31. Non-nucleoside Analogs
    Block ssRNA—reverse transcriptase-> dsDNA
  32. Protease Inhibitors:
    Prevents packaging of viral proteins into infectious virions
  33. Fusion Inhibitors
    Cell entry blockers
  34. Integrase inhibitor- Raltegravir
    blocks integrating of the virus’s genetic material with the cell’s genetic material
  35. Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors:
    • Delavirdine(Rescriptor)
    • Efavirenz(Sustive)
    • Nevirapine(Viramune)
    • All have “vir”
  36. Protease Inhibitors:
    • Ritonavir +Lopinavir(Kaletra)
    • Indinavir
    • Amprenavir
    • Atazanavir
    • Fosamprenavir(Nelfinavir)
    • Ritonavir
    • Saquinavir
  37. CCR5 Entry Inhibitors:
    • CCR5 receptor is one of the surface receptors that HIV atttaches too
    • Maraviroc blocks the virus from attaching to this receptor preventing chemical exchange from the virus into the Host cell
    • Used in combo with other antiretroviral drugs
    • Trofile Test-used to test if the HIV virus targets CCR5 receptors
  38. What is the most common sharp involved in percutaneous injuries?
    Hypodermic Needle
  39. Post Exposure Prophylaxis
    • 4weeks treatment with a combination drug(3 or more antiretroviral drugs) several times a day
    • Decreases the rate of infection approx. 79%
    • Followed by baseline test, 6weeks, 12 weeks and 6 months
  40. Hepatitis and healthcare workers: which is the most prevalent?
    Hep B
  41. Acute Hep B incubation period:
    • 60-90 days
    • fatigue, nausea/vommitting, jaundice, itchy skin, joint/muscle pain, and dark urine (rarely death)
    • 95% infections = full recovery and protective immunity
  42. Chronic Hep B
    • sam symptoms as Acute
    • end: severe hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, liver cancer and death
    • Death occurs from chronic liver disease in 15-25% of pts.
    • Younger the patient, more likely to become a chronic carrier
  43. Hep B and body fluids:
    • High: blood, serum, wound exudate
    • Moderate: semen, vaginal fluid, saliva
    • Low: Urine, Feces, Sweat, Tears, Breast milk
    • **Can survive as dried blood on a surfaces up to 2 weeks
  44. Hep b transmission:
    • Sexual
    • Parenteral
    • Perinatal
  45. Risk of Transmission:
    • 2-40% - Hepatitis B
    • 0.3% - HIV
  46. Hep b prevention:
    Vaccination -Engerix B or Recombovax HB
  47. Pediarix Vaccine:
    • DTaP, hep B and inactive polio
    • no preserative
  48. Hep B vaccine:
    immunity for life
  49. Hep B treatment:
    • Acute: no tx
    • Chronic: Interferon and Antiretrovirals
  50. TB:
    • Respiratory disease caused by inhalation of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
    • Bacteria grows in the lungs (highly infectious)
    • Can spread to kidney, spine and/or brain
  51. % of HIV infected with TB?
    1/3 HIV infected people co-infected
  52. What is the leading cause of death for AIDS patients?
    TB
  53. TB transmission:
    • Airborne droplets
    • Skin disruption
  54. TB symptoms:
    • Productive cough, fever
    • Weight loss, fatigue
    • Night sweats
    • Nail clubbing
    • Barrel chest
  55. TB diagnosis:
    • +PPD
    • CHest X-ray
    • +sputum
    • *TB culture= gold standard
  56. TB treatment:
    • 6-9 months
    • -Isoniazid(INH)
    • -Rifampin(RIF)
    • -Rifapentine(RPT)

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