Inorganic acids, bases, and salts

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zstiver
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248830
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Inorganic acids, bases, and salts
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2013-11-25 00:53:25
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Inorganic acids bases salts
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Inorganic acids, bases, and salts
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  1. What does dissociate refer to?
    Something that splits into ions and forms a homogeneous solution with water.
  2. What is an acid?
    • A substance that increases the concentration of H^+ (hydrogen ions) in water.
    • Dissociates into H^+ ions and other anions.
    • Because H^+ is a one proton with a positive charge, acids are also referred to as proton donors.
    • Strong acids COMPLETELY dissociate in water.
  3. What is a base?
    • A substance that increases the concentration of OH^- (hydroxide ions) in water.
    • Dissociates into OH^- ions and other cations.
    • Because bases remove H^+ from a solution, they are referred to as proton accepters.
    • Strong bases COMPLETELY dissociate in water.
  4. What is a salt?
    • Salts dissociate into ions in water, neither of which are h^+ (hydrogen ion) or OH^- (hydroxide ion).
    • Salts are important for carrying electrical currents (ions flowing from one place to another), especially in nerve and muscular tissues. 
    • Acids and bases, when combined, form different salts, with H2O (water) as a byproduct. (EX: HCI + KOH -> KCI (salt) + H2O (water))
  5. Why is the pH of ICF and ECF important and balanced?
    • Chemical reactions are highly dependent on the fluids pH in which they occurs in.
    • If the acidity or alkalinity (H^+ and OH^- concentrations) of a fluid is not in a narrow range needed by the reactants, body functions are disrupted.
  6. What is pH?
    • A scale in which a solutions acidity or alkalinity is expressed. 
    • Normally range from 0 - 14 (can be lower or higher)
    • 1-6 is more acidic
    • 8-14 is more basic
    • 7 is neutral and consists of H2O (Pure water)
  7. What is the pH scale based on?
    • Moles per liter of H^+ (hydrogen ions)
    • a pH of 7 means there are 1*10^-7 (one ten millionth) moles of hydrogen ions per liter in a solution.
    • a pH of 8 means there are 1*10^-8 moles of hydrogen ions per liter (a decrease of ten fold)
    • For every number on the pH scale you are increasing or decreasing the amount of h^+ by ten fold 
    • The same is true for OH^- (hydroxide ions) except the "line plot" runs in the opposite direction originating  at a pH of 7. So while a ph of 8 has 1*10^-8 of a mole of H^+, it was 1*10^-6 of a mole of OH^-
  8. What is an acidic solution?
    • A solution that consists of more H^+ (hydrogen ions) than OH^- (hydroxide ions)
    • A solution with a pH below 7
  9. What is an alkaline solution?
    • A solution that consists of more OH^- (hydroxide ions) than H^+ (hydrogen ions)
    • A solution with a pH above 7
  10. At what pH do homeostatic mechanisms maintain the blood at? (pH of healthy blood)
    A pH between 7.35 and 7.45 (slightly more basic than pure water)
  11. What is acidosis?
    • Condition in which blood pH drops below 7.35 (normal blood pH 7.35-7.45)
    • Can seriously compromise homeostasis by preventing chemical reactions from happening
  12. What is alkalosis?
    • Condition in which blood pH rises above 7.45 (normal blood pH 7.35-7.45
    • Can seriously compromise homeostasis by preventing chemical reactions from happening
  13. What does a buffer system do?
    • Converts a strong acid or base into a weak acid or base to maintain homeostasis.
    • The chemical compounds that do this are known as BUFFERS, they accomplish this by adding or removing protons (H^+)
  14. Give an example of a buffer system and explain the process.
    • The carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system.
    • Carbonic acid (H2CO3) can act as a weak acid, and the bicarbonate ion (HCO3^-) can act as a weak base.
    • Can either bond with H^+ (as bicarbonate ion; weak base) or break bonds with H^+ (as carbonic acid; weak acid) to maintain a required pH.

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