A series of questions to help review for the A&P2 Review sheet.
Which of the following cardiovascular elements is chiefly involved with pumping blood to all body organ systems and tissues? Heart, Arteries, Aterioles, Capillaries, Veins?
A tough CT layer protecting the heart and attaching it to the rest of the inside of the body and preventing overfilling with blood is the: visceral pericardium, parietal pericardium, serous pericardium, or fibrous pericardium?
Atrial contraction appears on the EKG as the P Wave, QRS wave or T wave?
Purkinje Fibers that carry contraction impulses from the AV node and enter the interventricular septum found in the R & L bundle branches, Bundle of His, or the intermodal pathway?
Bundle of His
Atrial contraction pushing the remainder of their blood into the ventricle is known by the term
Late Ventricular Filling
What condition indicates a heart condition that is probably serious and would need treatment?
A young man smoking just before day 1 with HR 89, day 2 HR 97 no smoking, and day 3 HR 93 no smoking (HR stayed elevated, indicating a health a problem.)
Increasing the HR and force for exercise and decreasing the HR and force for sleeping is controlled by what?
Medullary (slows HR down for sleep and speeds up for activity)
Excess of CA in body will make the heart beat...
Fast (rate) and strong (force)
Where is not a typical place to take pulse?
Which of the following can drain more blood flow in the blood flow (less resistance)? Wider BV, shorter BV, thin Bl viscosity, thin person, High BP, little peripheral resistance, all, some, or none?
During sitting, standing, or mild exercise, 60% of the bl is in the heart chambers, coronary arteries, pulmonary circulation, systemic arteries, systemic arterioles, systemic capillaries, or system veins?
During sitting, standings, or mild exercise, 50% of the bl is located in the drain and coronary BV, abdomen and liver, muscles and kidneys, or stomach?
Muscles and kidneys
Which of the following would be a con, feature or symptom of circulatory of hypovolemic shock hemorrhage, bl fluids leak to - space to replace fluids lost body surface, dehydration of bl and body fluid, BV drops, heart has insufficient bl to pump, heart slows down and may stop, any of these, some, or none?
any of these
Which of the following WBC are more intensely phagocytic, eosinophils and neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils, basophils and lymphoctes, neutrophils and monocytes , or monocytes and lymphocytes?
Neutrophils and monocytes
Which of the WBC are 4-5.3% of differential normal white blood count, they have cytoplasm, no grandules, indented kidney shapes nucleus, and are closely related to the fixes histiocyte and wandering macrophages of CT. Largest WBC and strongest phagocytes - lymphocytes, monocytes, or basophils?
The red liquid composed of elements, water, electrolytes, nutrients, waste, gases, hormones, and antibodies, that flows thru our cardiovascular system is known as tissue, fluids, lymph, serum, plasma, or blood?
Which of the following is the normal sequence of events in hemostasis? coagulation - platelet flood - local vasoconstriction - clot retraction - fibrous covering, local vasoconstriction - fibrous covering - platelet flood - clot retration - coagulation, or local vasoconstricition , platelet flood - coagulation - clot retraction - fibrous covering
B & T cells fight microbes and quarantine things that get into the body is called agglutination, allergy, immune deficiency, immunity, or phagocytosis?
Which of the following would be a feature or function of the RES system of tissues and organs? Scattered patches of lymphoid tissue and organs thruout the body, lymph vessels enter and leave them, filer lymph of microbes and particles, phagocytes eat B & T cells attach to foreign invaders, all, some, or none
Abundant venous sinuses in the spleen filter out old and defective RBC and blood, borne pathogens are called medullary chords, red pulp, or white pulp?
The blood is more oxygenated in the pulmonary arteries and more deoxygenated in the pulmonary veins
In the normal heart beat the ventricles contract first and slightly later the atriums contract
Right atrium into the left ventricle and the left atrium pumps blood into the right ventricle?
Normal HR in adults if 72 beats/min
After excitement or exercise the HR is normally high for a short while and after 15-20 min should drop to normal level
The end of diastolic volume (vent full with blood) minus end of systolic volume (very little left)= the stroke volume for the heart
Cardiac output is the stroke volume X the HR
BP readings are given as systolic pressure / diastolic pressure
The pulse can be considered to be heart beat or spurt of blood under pressure of the peripheral artery
In the sculpatory method of measuring BP, the systolic presure is when the blood has enough force to push open the arteries that were closed by the cuff
In normal adult males, the pulse rate is always higher than the HR where as in the normal female the pulse rate is always lower than the HR
FALSE definitely FALSE
The aortic and carotid sinuses are baroreceptors measuring BP whereas the aortic and carotid bodies are chemo receptors measuring blood oxygen and CO2
The Bainbridge reflex increases venous return and increases atrial filling by stimulating the cardioaccelerator center
The Bainbridge reflex demonstrates the Starling Law of the Heart
Blood flow in the BV is = to the blood pressure/peripheral resistance
Viscous blood provides more peripheral resistances and has less blood flow than does thin blood
Individuals BP values may differ from the norm in adults depending on their body size & age
The blood vessels have a closed system of interconnected elements whereas the lymph vessels have an open system
The length of time the BP stays high is more important than the numerical value
Sympathetic nerve impulses cause vasoconstriction of the circular smooth muscle in the BV wall whereas parasympathic nerve impulses cause vasodilation
Persistent hypertension is usually due to fever, physical exertion or emotional upset whereas transient hypertension is due to more BV in obese person, excess salt in diet, or blocked kidney tubal
The state of partial contraction in the smooth muscle in the BV wall to maintain a normal amount of BP is referred to as vasomotor tone
A positive net filtration pressure in the capillaries indicates filtration whereas a negative net filtration pressure in the capillaries indicates absorption
True (positive net filtration pressure means pushing out or filtration & negative means sucking)
Varicose veins are dilated and often seen bulging on the surface of the body especially the leg. The valves dont close properly allowing fluid to leak back into the tissue causing edema or swelling
in the coronary circuit, blood flows from the right atrium to the coronary sinus and coronary veins to the myocardial capillaries, nourishing the heart muscle to the right and left side of the heart to the small right or left coronary arteries to the aorta
Under normal conditions if the skin gets extra or less blood flow it is for regulation of body temperature
Atherosclerosis of the coronary BV results in ishemia and thus hypoxia of the myocardium which will give progressively weaker contractions
The spleen and liver filter old and worn out RBCS and convert their hemoglobin to the bio pigments bilirubin and bile
During rest or mild activity the muscles get 75% of blood flow while during strenous exercise they only get 25% of blood flow
Pulmonary BV are ridged. They hold the same amount of blood during exercise as they do when the body is at rest.
In the hands and feet, small areas exist where small vein and artery walls are so closed together than some heat goes from the arterial blood to the venous blood directly and back into the internal organs and capillaries
Men have 5.2 million RBC per milliters of blood and women have 4.8 million RBC
In the donating and receiving of blood, it is important to consider the antigens of the donor and the antibodies of the recipient
Erythropoietin is a hormone which stimulates bone marrow to make more RBCs with hemoglobin to carry O2
In the coagulation reaction Protrhombin is converted to thrombin and fibrinogen is converted to fibrin
The donors RBC are needed by the recipient therefore it is important that they have no antigens that could be attacked by the antibodies in the recipients blood
In erythroblastosis fetalis the mothers blood is Rh+ and the child's blood is Rh-
Lympth collecting vessels have slightly smaller lumen, fewer valves, thicker walls, and are less collpasible than veins
In a lymph node, the cortex has densely packed follicles of the gliding B cells and loose circulating T cells whereas the medulla has a chords or streams of??
the irregular ridges of muscle on the inner surface of the ventricle are pectinate muscles or trabeculae carneae?
The serous pericardium or fibrous pericardium is a slippery layer of tissue forming the epicaridum lining on the outer surface of the ehart and the inner edge of the pericardial cavity
the loud high pitched and short found heard during closure of the SL valves is the 1st lub or 2nd dub
excessively slow heartbeat of 60 beats/min or less is tachycardia or bradycardia
atrium/ventricles are thick walled, lower, and larger chambers
Tricuspid or bicuspid valve is the opening between the left atrium and the left ventricle
the left or right ventricle is the larger, thicker walled of the 2 and supplies blood to the aorta and body
systole or diastole refers to the relaxation of chambers usually the ventricle and last from the dup of the one beat to the lub of next and includes T wave and the next P wave
Arterioles or veinioles collect the blood from an organ or tissue also the blood velocity rises in them to the due amount of blood coming from the different part of the area uniting
Arteries or veins are thinner walls and have wider lumen
Cardiac muscle has anastomses or intercalated discs occur when the ends of the cells join tightly containing cells and gap junctions
the brachial or radial artery is the usual place to take the pulse
venule plexus/ arterial venous anastomoses are networks of the blood vessels in the hands and feet that hold blood extra blood long enough to release heat and warm hands and ???
conducting/distributing arteries such as the renal hepatic arteries and other small arteries going to the organs have much smooth muscles and some elastic tissue in their wall.
distributing. conducting has a lot of elastic because higher pressure - already lower when gets to distributing because it is going into organs
consisting of endothelium and some smooth muscle arterioles / veinioles have thinner walls and wider lumen
the area that sends a slightly delayed message to the ventricles to contract found at the junction of the intra atrial and right atrial ventricular septa is the SA/AV node
the circumflex/marginal arteries supply blood to the lateral right side of the heart
marginal. circumflex is on left side
vasodilation of blood vessels is achieved by many/few sympathetic impulses coming to the circular smooth muscle in their walls
few. sympathetic - dilation - few
artery/vein walls have less strength and are more collapsible like plastic bags and are under least pressure, travels with moderate velocity least, and has valves to prevent back flow
electrocardiogram/ phonocardiogram is the record of eletrical impulses passing thru the heart tissue
heparin/figrinolysin made by the liver prevents blood clotting in the body
lymph vessels/lymph nodes carry lymph from the tissue spaces and dumps them into the blood stream
the bone marrow and thymus are primary/secondary lymph organs
in the extrinsic/intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation, the tissues secrete as active thromboplastin which is converted by blood factors and Ca to activate thromboplastin
extrinsic (intrinsic is platelets releasing)
the thoracic duct/ right lymphatic duct drain the lymph into the veins from the upper left and lower left and right quadrants of the body
in hemolytic disease the first child/ later children some RBCs are destroyed and their hemoglobin is converted to bilirubin or bili, causing yellow jaundice of thr skin which can be cleared up by a heat lamp.
3/4 of all strokes are due to occlusion/rupture of blood vessels in the brain usually on one of the middle cerebral arteries.
Rupture. 25% due to occlusion
A thrombus/embolism is a moving blood clot
Ca and fiber deposits harden into plaque on the interior arterial wall raises/lowers the BP because the stretch and recoil of the elastic layers is essentially lost
the dust cells of the lungs and van kupfer cells of the liver are primary or secondary lymphoid tissue