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The main theories on motivation are as follows:
- -the Hawthorne studies suggest the employees are more motivated when they receive more attention
- -Maslow's hierachy of needs theory suggests that employees are satisfied by different needs depending on their position within the hierarchy. Firms can motivate employees at the low end of the hierarchy by promising job security or safe working conditions. Firms can motivate employees whose basic needs are already fulfilled by allowing social interaction or more responsibilities.
- -Herzberg's job satisfaction study suggests that the factors that prevent job dissatisfaction are different from those that enhance job satisfaction. Adequate salary and working conditions prevent job dissatisfaction, while responsibility and recognition enhance job satisfaction.
- -McGregor's Theories X and Y suggest that when supervisors believe employees dislike work and responsibilities (Theory X), they do not delegate responsibilities and employees are not motivated; when superviros believe that employees prefer responsibilities (Theory Y), they delegate more responsibilities, which motivates employees.
- -Theory Z suggests that employees are more satisfied when they are involved in decision making and therefore may be more motivated.
- -Expectancy theory suggests that employees are more motivated if compensation is aligned with goals that are achievable and offer some reward
- -Equity theory suggests that employees are more motivated if their compensation is aligned with their relative contribution to the firm's total output.
the degree to which employees are satisfied with their jobs
hierarchy of needs
needs are ranked in five general categories. Once a given category of needs is achieved, people become motivated to reach the next category
the basic requirements for survival
job security and safe working conditions
the need to be part of a group
respect, prestige, and recognition
the need to fully reach one's potential
work-related factors that can fulfill basic needs and prevent job dissatisfaction
work-related factors that can lead to job satisfaction and motivate employees
holds that an employee's efforts are influenced by the expected outcome (reward) for those efforts
suggests that compensation should be equitable, or in proportion to each employee's contribution
suggests that reinforcement can influence behavior
motivates employees by providing rewards for high performance
motivates employees by encouragement them to behave in a manner that avoids unfavorable consequences
job enrichment programs
programs designed to increase the job satisfaction of employees
a compensation system that allocates raises according to performance (merit)
a compensation system that allocates similar raises to all employees
provide employees with various forms of compensation if they meet specific performance goals
programs that allow for a more flexible work schedule
compresses the workload into fewer days per week
two or more persons share a particular work schedule
a program to expand (enlarge) the jobs assigned to employees
a program that allows a set of employees to periodically rotate their job assignment
allowing employees the power to make more decisions
employees are allowed to participate in various decisions made by their supervisors or others
management by objectives (MBO)
allows employees to participate in setting their goals and determining the manner in which they complete their tasks
a group of employees with varied job positions have the responsibility to achieve a specified goal
a form of employee involvement that educates employees on their contribution to the firm and enables them to periodically assess their own performance levels
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