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  1. what are the two types of radiographic contrast agents
    positive and negative
  2. what is negative contrast agents
    what appearance is negative contrast
    what are two examples of negative contrast
    • Negative : decreases organ density to produce contrast     
    • Two types:
    • Carbon dioxide
    • Air
    • Complication = injection of air into the blood stream, producing an air embolus.

    Negative contrast gives a black (like air) appearance on an image
  3. what is positive contrast and list two examples
    Positive: increases organ density and improves radiographic visualization. Positive contrast agents create a density difference such as white or opaque appearance on the image.

    • Two types:
    • Barium
    • Iodinated contrasts
  4. does positive and negative contrast agents cause adverse effects
  5. what is the most frequently chosen positive contrast
    what color is it
    • barium sulfate
    • White or pink, crystalline powder that is mixed with water to make a suspension
  6. when scheduling a diagnostic imaging exam. images that do not require contrast media should be imaged first
    T or F
  7. an examination that requires a patient to fast for 8 hours or more should be scheduled when
    early in the morning
  8. what is the patient preparation for studies of the lower GI tract
    • strict diet
    • liquids 24 hours prior
    • laxative and cleansing enemas
    • patient on special medication advised by physician
  9. cleansing enemas to be used is ordered by whom
  10. the most frequently used cleansing enemas are :
    • Saline enema
    • Hypertonic enema
    • Oil-retention enema
    • Tap water enema
    • Soap suds enema
    • Self-administered enema
  11. what is the term for creating dehydration
    what is the term for creating fluid toxicity
    • hyperosmolar
    • hyposmolar
  12. cleansing enemas can influence _____ and _____ balance in the body to varying degrees because they each have a different degree of osmolarity, which influences the movement of fluids between the colon and the interstitial spaces beyond the intestinal wall
    fluid and electrolyte
  13. what is double contrast or single contrast
    • Studies performed to diagnose pathological conditions of the lower GI tract use a combination of barium and air or carbon dioxide
    • single contrast barium alone
  14. why do we perform BE's
    is performed to diagnose pathological conditions of the lower GI tract, primarily colon cancer
  15. what is done to protect peritonitis
    If there is a possibility of disease or perforation of the lower GI, a water soluble iodinated contrast agent is used
  16. what is used intravenously to reduce gastric mobility before
    anticholinergic drug or “glucagon”
  17. what are some symptoms of patients who undergo an exam of lower GI
    • Uncomfortable
    • Pain (in some cases)
    • High anxiety
    • Embarrassed
    • Fear
    • Abdominal cramping
  18. will a patient feel more or less discomfort while doing a double air contrast study
    more discomfort
  19. before we remove the enema tip we must do waht
    deflate the cuff
  20. what is a stoma
    what diseases require stomas
    • created by bringing a loop of bowel to the skin surface of the abdomen.
    • Cancer
    • Diverticulitis
    • Ulcerative colitis
    • Traumatic injuries
  21. never place a s patient with a stoma in the ___ position because this cause damage to the patient
  22. what is a colostomy and ileostomy
    • opening from the colon
    • opening from the ileum
  23. why do we perform upper GI series
    can the patient chew gum or smoke
    • They are performed to diagnose pathology of the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and small intestines.
    • no
  24. if perforation or an obstruction occurs during the process what is used to compenasate
    iodinated contrast
  25. how many oz of barium is consumed by the patient for a UGI
    what does the fluoro unit show while the patient is drinking
    what two types of barium is used for a UGI
    • 12 oz
    • contours the upper gi and outlines peristalsis
    • thick and thin
  26. what does sbft stand for and its aka
    • small bowel follow through
    • small bowel series
  27. what is NPO and meaning
    what are some factors a patient must do before a UGI and SBFT
    • nil per os
    • which means nothing by mouth
    • Low residue diet 2 to 3 days prior to exam
    • NPO 8 hrs before the exam
    • No smoking or chewing gum
Card Set:
2013-11-24 23:49:03

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