Chemistry Chapter 5

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JJ73
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Chemistry Chapter 5
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2013-11-24 23:37:05
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  1. Hydrogen
    • Can lose or gain one electron
    • discovered by Cavendish
  2. Hydrogen physical properties
    colorless, odorless, tasteless gas
  3. Hydrogen Chemical Properties
    • active
    • diatomic
    • can react with metals to form metallic hydrides
  4. uses for H
    • most abundant element
    • ammonia
    • fuel cells
    • "rocket" fuel
  5. Alkali Metal Family (1 Valence Electron)
    Physical Properties- light, soft, shiny, conduct electricity well

    Chemical Properties- most reactive metals, eager to lose outer electron, never occur naturally, more reactive going down the table
  6. Uses for Alkali Metal
    • Na: human body
    • K: human body, fertalizers
  7. Alkaline earth metal family (2 electrons)
    Physical Properties: heavier, harder, less shine

    Chemical Properties: less reactive, have two electrons
  8. Uses of Alkaline earth metal
    • Mg: light alloy, lighting
    • Ca: bones, construction
    • Mg and Ca ions: make "hard water"
  9. Transition Metals
    Physical Properties-  most heavy and hard, shine, conduct electricity well, typical metals

    Chemical Properties- building, electricity, decoration, human body, paints.
  10. Inner Transition Metals
    Physical Properties- Paramagnetic

    Chemical Properties-  known mainly for radioactivity rather than chemical
  11. Uses for Inner Transition Metals
    industry, nuclear fission, splitting in bombs and power plants
  12. Post T- Metals
    Physical Properties- light to fairly heavy, some shiny and dull, some conduct electricity

    Chemical Properties- range from Al to lead
  13. Uses for Post T- Metals
    • aluminum alloys
    • construction
  14. Metalloids
    • Have properties of metals and nonmetals
    • Physical Properties- shine, conduct electricity, but not well

    Chemical Properties- not very active
  15. Metalloids uses
    • arsenic- poison, medicine
    • silicon- computer chips
    • base of mineral world
  16. Aluminum
    • high strength and low density
    • Cant be found pure in the earth
    • it resists corrosion
    • it corrodes rusts only one layer thick; it doesn't flake off like iron does
  17. Carbon is the most important element
  18. Silicon is found in sand and used in glass
  19. Rutherford
    discovered Nitrogen which is colorless, odorless gas

    nitrogen is relatively invert bonded nicely in pairs.
  20. Phosphorous
    • Greek for light bearer
    • yellow, red, or black solid
    • too reactive to be found pure
    • used in fertilizer
  21. Nitrogen uses
    3/4ths of the earth's atmosphere, ammonia, smog, "laughing" gas
  22. Oxygen
    • Discovered by Priestly 
    • very reactive forms oxides
    • uses- 1/5th of the worlds atmosphere 50% of world's crust, combustion, life, rust
  23. Oxygen two forms
    • diatomic
    • ozone
  24. ozone
    • founded in upper atmosphere 
    • blocks uv rays
    • also forms near lightning
  25. Sulfur
    • known since Old testament times as brimstone
    • yellow solid has several forms
    • reactive, forms sulfides
  26. Sulfur uses
    Sulfuric acid and acid rain
  27. Halogens
    • Physical properties- varied from light to dark colored going down the table
    • odor
    • Chemical properties- most reactive
    • wants to gain electrons
  28. Halogen uses
    • F: teeth
    • Cl: pools, bleach
    • I: Thyroid gland
  29. Noble gases
    • colorless gas
    • almost inert have 8 valence
    • uses- He: balloons, deep sea diving
    • Ne, Kr, Xe: Lighting

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