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Faculty for recalling past events and past learnings
The three basic activities of memory
- 1. encoding
- 2. storage
- 3. Retrieval
basic activity, involving recording information in our brains
basic activity, activity of memory, involving retention of information for later use
Recapture memories when needed
Define information-processing model
processing information from senses to memory, that must pass through three systems/stages: sensory memory, working memory and long term memory. (information is retrieved piece by piece)
About Sensory Memory
- Purpose: holds sensory info
- Duration:0.5 seconds for visual. 2-4 seconds for auditory
- Capacity: large
- (Information not transferred is lost)
Define iconic memory +
Name two parts of Short Term Memory (STM)
- 1. Working memory, things we are thinking and working with consciously
- 2. stores information that we need to have nearby
Two way of storing memory, as defined by Baddeley and Hitch
- Phonological loop: repetition to keep information active in memory
- Visuospatial sketchpad: temporarily store image and spatial locations we are working with.
Systems of memory vs. operation of computers.
1. Sensory memory
2. Working memory
3. Long term memory
- 1. icons
- 2. unsaved work
- 3. hard drive
- (this is only a metaphor)
Define Memory stores
Sensory memory, working memory, long term memory
Define Parallel distributed processing (PDP) or connectionist model.
newly encountered pieces of information immediately joins with other, previously encountered pieces of relevant information to help form and grow network of information
People are good at switching from task to task, but not multi-tasking. example of PDP
asked to do both visual OR both auditory task, their performance suffer. However, when asked to do either the visual or auditory, their performance is the same as doing one of those things.
"apple" network activated, related neurons in the brain become activated and rich memories spring forth. ex…
grandma, pie, red, memory of childhood.. snow-white
How do we encode information into memory?
encoding requires _____
Define Automatic processing
- encoding information with little consciousness awareness or effort
- ex. finding your bedroom.
- **still require some attention
Define Effortful processing
- encoding of information through careful attention and conscious effort.
- ex, studying
Pros of automatic processing
-is disrupted slightly by the performance of another task. ex. talking and pouring coffee, can performance both task at a time.
-requires little effort.
Cons of effortful processing
- -processing is disrupted/ attend other information when person is forced to do the task.
- ex. studying while you are texting.
Define sensory memory
memory involving detail, brief sensory image/ sound that is retained for a short period of time
George Sperling wanted to demonstrate how long an individual's visual storehouse will last.
- presented letters less than 1 second - most can report back
- presented letters, then less than 1 second later, tone appears - most can report back
- presented letters waited for a while then tone- their performance decline
Define Working memory
- Short term memory store that can hold 5-9 items at once
- ex. holding phone numbers/ remembering first part of sentence, while finishing end of sentence.
Conscious repetition of information in an attempt to ensure that information is encoded.
Define Long Term Memory
- Memory system where we hold all info we have previously father, available for retrieval and use in a new situation or task.
- ex. past events
Define Spacing Effect
- facilitated encoding of materials through rehearsal situation spread out over time
- (distributed practice vs passed practice)
Sleep and memory
- information acquired before falling asleep tends to be encoded into long term, but need time to rehearse it
- language tape will most likely not enter memory
Define phonological code
- repeating sounds of numbers again and again ex. phone number
- usually used for numbers, letters and words
Define Visual code
- holding image of how it would look if it was written down (image of phone number)
- usually used for non-verbal information ex. person's face
Pros and Cons of codes
- individuals gets confused and mix similar information together.
- photographic memory aka eidetic memories
Long term memory and encoding
non-verbal vs. verbal information
- Non-verbal information: use phonological/ visual coding ex, We day, sounds of performance, see the crowd cheer
- Verbal information: semantic code
Define semantic code
- representation of information based on the meaning of the information
- ex. girl was with someone who was not their boyfriend, so the girl is cheating.
Encoding and Meaning
multiple codes _____, ______ and ______ will ______ the likelihood and strength of memory
semantic code, visual code, phonological, increases
Define mnemonic device
Meaningful information is more likely to be memorized, so can artificially add meaning to information to make more memorable.
Encoding and Organization
- ex. Italy, england, fox, bear, rabbit, spain, mouse
- results: categorize into animals and european countries.
- knowledge basses that we develop based on prior experiences or other knowledge bases.
- ex. knowing what to do in a restaurant that you are not familiar with.
How do we store memories?