Pharmacology Diuretics 1

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  1. The kidneys maintain __________ and ____________ of the body fluids constant despite wide variation in the daily intake of water and solutes.
    Volume and composition
  2. The kidney’s filter how much blood a day?
    180 Liters
  3. How much urine is produced in a day?
    ~1.5 Liter
  4. What are the common clinical reasons for diuretic use?
    Essential Hypertension and Edema associated with Liver failure, CHF and Kidney Failure
  5. What type of diuretics can be classified as “K loosing”?
    Thiazide diuretics, loop diuretics, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and osmotic diuretics
  6. What diuretics can be classified as K sparing?
    Spirolactone, Triamterene and amiloride
  7. What is the MOA of Thiazide diuretics?
    Na/Cl blockers
  8. What is the MOA of Loop diuretics?
    Na/K/2Cl cotransporter blockers
  9. Are Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors commonly used?
  10. What is the MOA of Spirolactone?
    Aldosterone antagonist, blocks aldosterone binding to the receptor reducing N reabsorption and K excretion
  11. What is the MOA of triamterene and amoliride?
    Blocks Na channel in collecting duct, reducing Na reabsorption and K excretion
  12. What part of the nephron does Mannitol act on?
    Proximal convoluted tubule
  13. What part of the nephron does Furosemide act on?
    Thick segmented ascending loop
  14. What part of the nephron do Thiazides act on?
    Early distal convoluted tubule
  15. What part of the nephron do Spirolactone and Triamterene act on?
    Late distal convoluted tubule and the collecting duct
  16. Do K sparing diuretics cause a substantial increase in Urine volume?
    No, very modest
  17. What is the brand name for Spirolactone?
  18. What is the OOA for Spirolactone?
    48 hours
  19. Why does it take 48 hours for Spirolactone to have an effect?
    Steroids (aldosterone) produce slow effects
  20. What is Spirolactone often used in combination with?
    Loop or Thiazide diuretics
  21. What is Spirolactone used to treat?
    Hypertension and edema, hyperaldosteronism, reduce mortality in patients with Severe HF
  22. What are the adverse effect of Spirolactone?
    Hyperkalemia, endocrine effects (gynecomastia, menstrual irregularities, impotence, hirsutism, voice deepening)
  23. Spirolactone directly blocks Na reabsorption (True/False)
  24. What drugs should Spirolactone or other K-sparing diuretics not be co-administered with?
    Any drugs that increase plasma K, like ACE inhibitors
  25. A patient on an ACE inhibitor can be given a K-sparing diuretic (True/False)
    False, ACE inhibitors can increase potassium levels
  26. Effects of Tramterene/Amiloride or Spirolactone occur more quickly?
  27. Why does Tramterene/Amiloride have a fast OOA that Spirolactone?
    Tramterene/Amiloride directly block the Na channel
  28. What is the OOA of Tramterene/Amiloride?
    2-4 hours
  29. What is the DOA for Tramterene/Amiloride?
    12-16 hours
  30. Tramterene/Amiloride are used in the treatment of what?
    Edema and Hypertension
  31. What are Tramterene/Amiloride often used in combination with?
    Loop or Thiazide Diuretics
  32. What are the potential adverse effects of Tramterene/Amiloride?
    Hyperkalemia, N and V, Leg cramps, dizziness, blood dyscrasias
  33. What is the MOA for thiazide diuretics?
    Blocks Na/Cl co-transporter in early distal tubule
  34. Rank Diuresis effects of the following: Thiazide diuretics, Loop diuretics and K sparing diuretics
    Loop diuretics > Thiazide diuretics > K sparing diuretics
  35. Under what conditions do thiazide diuretics not work well?
    Low renal blood flow/Glomerular filtration rate
  36. Why should you not take Thiazide diuretics at bedtime?
    Diuresis begins 2 hours after taking and ends 12 hours later
  37. In what form and by what route are Thiazide Diuretics excreted?
    Unchanged in urine
  38. Thiazide diuretics cause peak diuresis at what time point?
    4-6 hours after administration
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Pharmacology Diuretics 1
2013-11-25 02:52:05
Pharmacology Diuretics

Pharmacology Diuretics 1
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