Equine Teeth and Aging
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What does Hetodontous mean?
Many different shapes of teeth
What does Diphyodountous mean?
- 2 different sets of teeth
- Deciduous and Permanent Teeth
Name the layers of the tooth
- Cementum - outer layer, anchors to gums
- Enamel - strongest, tends to be brittle
- Dentin - softer
- Pulp Cavity - flood flow, nerves, regresses and fills in with Dentin as the horses age.
What does Hypsodont mean?
- Teeth are continually erupting
- 1/8 inch per year
What are the 2 basic structures of the tooth?
- Crown - What you see outside the gum
- Reserve Crown - What is underneath the gum
What is the Infundibulum?
The indentation on the top of the tooth, cup like structure
What are the different types of teeth?
How many teeth does a full grown horse have? At what age is the horse when it has all of its teeth?
What is the Interdental Space?
- Space in between Wolf teeth/premolars and Canines
- We place the bit here
How many Incisors does an adult horse typically have?
How many Canines doe an adult horse have?
0 - 4
How many Premolars does an adult horse have?
- Wolf teeth are included some horses don't have wolf teeth
How many Molars dos an adult horse have?
What are the names of Incisors?
Name the Premolars
- 1st premolar or Wolf tooth
- 2nd premolar
- 3rd premolar
- 4th premolar
Name the Molars
- 1st Molar
- 2nd Molar
- 3rd Molar
What types of Deciduous teeth do horses have?
Incisors and Premolars
At what age does a horse have Central Incisors?
Born with them or come in within 1 week
At what age does a horse have Intermediate Incisors?
At what age does a horse have Corner Incisors?
At what age does a horse have 2nd and 3rd Premolars?
Born with them or come in within the first 2 weeks
At what age do the first permanent Central Incisors appear?
2.5 years years
At what age do the first permanent Intermediate Incisors appear?
At what age do the first permanent Corner Incisors appear?
At what age does the first permanent Premolar appear?
At what age does the second permanent Premolar appear?
At what age does the third permanent Premolar appear?
At what age does the fourth permanent Premolar appear?
3.5 -4 years
At what age does the first permanent Molar appear?
At what age does the second permanent Molar appear?
At what age does the third permanent Molar appear?
3.5 - 4 years
At what age do the Canines appear?
4-5 years, if they errupt, they are the last ones.
What are Caps?
Deciduous teeth that have not been lost and sit on top of the permanent teeth are called caps
After 5 years of age, how do you determine a horse’s age?
- Aging Hooks
- Dental Stars
- Galvayne's Groove
- Shape of Teeth
Where do you find Aging Hooks?
Upper Corner Incisors on the outside.
When do Aging Hooks appear?
Around 7 years and disappear around 9 years then re-appear at 11 and stay till around 18
What are Cups?
Used in younger horses to help determine age, the deeper the Cup the younger the horse.
At what age do Cups start to disappear and on what Teeth?
Cups are on Incisors only.
- Lower Incisors Disappear first
- Central Incisors - 6 years
- Intermediate - 7 years
- Corners - 8 years
- Central - 9 years
- Intermediate - 10 years
- Corners - 11 years
What are Dental Stars?
They appear after Cups disappear in older horses. They are slightly different in color.
What is the Galvayne's Groove and where is it located?
A deep dark groove that appears as the horse gets older then disappears and comes back
Corner Incisor on the upper teeth
At what ages does a horse have a Galvayne's Groove and what does it look like?
- 10yrs ~ 30yrs
- Starts at the gum line at age 10
- By 15 its halfway down
- By 20 is all the way down
- By 25 it has disappeared from the top and is only on the bottom
- Gone by 30
What shape are older horses teeth?
- Incisors don't grind
- Angled out
- Triangular from top
What shape are middle aged horses teeth?
What shape are younger horses teeth?
- Oval from the top
- Very Square from front
How often do Domestic horses need dental care?
Once a year
Why don't wild horses need dental care?
The angle they eat at while grazing helps keep teeth in good shape. They also eat rougher forage.
What does Occlusion mean?
Teeth meet up nicely
What does Malocclusion mean?
Teeth do not meet up nicely
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