Equine Teeth and Aging
Card Set Information
Equine Teeth and Aging
Equine Teeth Aging
How to age horses by their teeth, equine teeth terminology
What does Hetodontous mean?
Many different shapes of teeth
What does Diphyodountous mean?
2 different sets of teeth
Deciduous and Permanent Teeth
Name the layers of the tooth
Cementum - outer layer, anchors to gums
Enamel - strongest, tends to be brittle
Dentin - softer
Pulp Cavity - flood flow, nerves, regresses and fills in with Dentin as the horses age.
What does Hypsodont mean?
Teeth are continually erupting
1/8 inch per year
What are the 2 basic structures of the tooth?
Crown - What you see outside the gum
Reserve Crown - What is underneath the gum
What is the Infundibulum?
The indentation on the top of the tooth, cup like structure
What are the different types of teeth?
How many teeth does a full grown horse have? At what age is the horse when it has all of its teeth?
5 years old
What is the Interdental Space?
Space in between Wolf teeth/premolars and Canines
We place the bit here
How many Incisors does an adult horse typically have?
How many Canines doe an adult horse have?
0 - 4
How many Premolars does an adult horse have?
Wolf teeth are included some horses don't have wolf teeth
How many Molars dos an adult horse have?
What are the names of Incisors?
Name the Premolars
1st premolar or Wolf tooth
Name the Molars
What types of Deciduous teeth do horses have?
Incisors and Premolars
At what age does a horse have Central Incisors?
Born with them or come in within 1 week
At what age does a horse have Intermediate Incisors?
At what age does a horse have Corner Incisors?
At what age does a horse have 2nd and 3rd Premolars?
Born with them or come in within the first 2 weeks
At what age do the first permanent Central Incisors appear?
2.5 years years
At what age do the first permanent Intermediate Incisors appear?
At what age do the first permanent Corner Incisors appear?
At what age does the first permanent Premolar appear?
At what age does the second permanent Premolar appear?
At what age does the third permanent Premolar appear?
At what age does the fourth permanent Premolar appear?
3.5 -4 years
At what age does the first permanent Molar appear?
At what age does the second permanent Molar appear?
At what age does the third permanent Molar appear?
3.5 - 4 years
At what age do the Canines appear?
4-5 years, if they errupt, they are the last ones.
What are Caps?
Deciduous teeth that have not been lost and sit on top of the permanent teeth are called caps
After 5 years of age, how do you determine a horse’s age?
Shape of Teeth
Where do you find Aging Hooks?
Upper Corner Incisors on the outside.
When do Aging Hooks appear?
Around 7 years and disappear around 9 years then re-appear at 11 and stay till around 18
What are Cups?
Used in younger horses to help determine age, the deeper the Cup the younger the horse.
At what age do Cups start to disappear and on what Teeth?
Cups are on Incisors only.
Lower Incisors Disappear first
Central Incisors - 6 years
Intermediate - 7 years
Corners - 8 years
Central - 9 years
Intermediate - 10 years
Corners - 11 years
What are Dental Stars?
They appear after Cups disappear in older horses. They are slightly different in color.
What is the Galvayne's Groove and where is it located?
A deep dark groove that appears as the horse gets older then disappears and comes back
Corner Incisor on the upper teeth
At what ages does a horse have a Galvayne's Groove and what does it look like?
10yrs ~ 30yrs
Starts at the gum line at age 10
By 15 its halfway down
By 20 is all the way down
By 25 it has disappeared from the top and is only on the bottom
Gone by 30
What shape are older horses teeth?
Incisors don't grind
Triangular from top
What shape are middle aged horses teeth?
Round on top
What shape are younger horses teeth?
Oval from the top
Very Square from front
How often do Domestic horses need dental care?
Once a year
Why don't wild horses need dental care?
The angle they eat at while grazing helps keep teeth in good shape. They also eat rougher forage.
What does Occlusion mean?
Teeth meet up nicely
What does Malocclusion mean?
Teeth do not meet up nicely