Equine Teeth and Aging

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Equine Teeth and Aging
2013-11-30 11:59:04
Equine Teeth Aging

How to age horses by their teeth, equine teeth terminology
Show Answers:

  1. What does Hetodontous mean?
    Many different shapes of teeth
  2. What does Diphyodountous mean?
    • 2 different sets of teeth
    • Deciduous and Permanent Teeth
  3. Name the layers of the tooth
    • Cementum - outer layer, anchors to gums
    • Enamel - strongest, tends to be brittle
    • Dentin - softer
    • Pulp Cavity - flood flow, nerves, regresses and fills in with Dentin as the horses age.
  4. What does Hypsodont mean?
    • Teeth are continually erupting
    • 1/8 inch per year
  5. What are the 2 basic structures of the tooth?
    • Crown - What  you see outside the gum
    • Reserve Crown - What is underneath the gum
  6. What is the Infundibulum?
    The indentation on the top of the tooth, cup like structure
  7. What are the different types of teeth?
  8. How many teeth does a full grown horse have?  At what age is the horse when it has all of its teeth?
    • 36-44 teeth 
    • 5 years old
  9. What is the Interdental Space?
    • Space in between Wolf teeth/premolars and Canines
    • We place the bit here
  10. How many Incisors does an adult horse typically have?
  11. How many Canines doe an adult horse have?
    0 - 4
  12. How many Premolars does an adult horse have?
    • 12-16
    • Wolf teeth are included some horses don't have wolf teeth
  13. How many Molars dos an adult horse have?
  14. What are the names of Incisors?
    • Central 
    • Intermediate
    • Corner
  15. Name the Premolars
    • 1st premolar or Wolf tooth
    • 2nd premolar
    • 3rd premolar
    • 4th premolar
  16. Name the Molars
    • 1st Molar
    • 2nd Molar
    • 3rd Molar
  17. What types of Deciduous teeth do horses have?
    Incisors and Premolars
  18. At what age does a horse have Central Incisors?
    Born with them or come in within 1 week
  19. At what age does a horse have Intermediate Incisors?
    4-6 weeks
  20. At what age does a horse have Corner Incisors?
    6-9 Months
  21. At what age does a horse have 2nd and 3rd Premolars?
    Born with them or come in within the first 2 weeks
  22. At what age do the first permanent Central Incisors appear?
    2.5 years years
  23. At what age do the first permanent Intermediate Incisors appear?
    3.5 years
  24. At what age do the first permanent Corner Incisors appear?
    4.5 years
  25. At what age does the first permanent Premolar appear?
    • Wolf tooth
    • 5-6 months
  26. At what age does the second permanent Premolar appear?
    2.5 years
  27. At what age does the third permanent Premolar appear?
    3 years
  28. At what age does the fourth permanent Premolar appear?
    3.5 -4 years
  29. At what age does the first permanent Molar appear?
    9-12 Months
  30. At what age does the second permanent Molar appear?
    2 years
  31. At what age does the third permanent Molar appear?
    3.5 - 4 years
  32. At what age do the Canines appear?
    4-5 years, if they errupt, they are the last ones.
  33. What are Caps?
    Deciduous teeth that have not been lost and sit on top of the permanent teeth are called caps
  34. After 5 years of age, how do you determine a horse’s age?
    • Aging Hooks
    • Cups
    • Dental Stars
    • Galvayne's Groove
    • Shape of Teeth
  35. Where do you find Aging Hooks?
    Upper Corner Incisors on the outside.
  36. When do Aging Hooks appear?
    Around 7 years and disappear around 9 years then re-appear at 11 and stay till around 18
  37. What are Cups?
    Used in younger horses to help determine age, the deeper the Cup the younger the horse.
  38. At what age do Cups start to disappear and on what Teeth?
    Cups are on Incisors only.

    • Lower Incisors Disappear first
    • Central Incisors - 6 years
    • Intermediate - 7 years
    • Corners - 8 years

    • Upper
    • Central - 9 years
    • Intermediate - 10 years
    • Corners - 11 years
  39. What are Dental Stars?
    They appear after Cups disappear in older horses.  They are slightly different in color.
  40. What is the Galvayne's Groove and where is it located?
    A deep dark groove that appears as the horse gets older then disappears and comes back

    Corner Incisor on the upper teeth
  41. At what ages does a horse have a Galvayne's Groove and what does it look like?
    • 10yrs ~ 30yrs
    • Starts at the gum line at age 10
    • By 15 its halfway down
    • By 20 is all the way down 
    • By 25 it has disappeared from the top and is only on the bottom
    • Gone by 30
  42. What shape are older horses teeth?
    • Longer
    • Incisors don't grind
    • Angled out
    • Triangular from top
  43. What shape are middle aged horses teeth?
    • Angled
    • Longer
    • Round on top
  44. What shape are younger horses teeth?
    • Shorter 
    • Straighter 
    • Oval from the top
    • Very Square from front
  45. How often do Domestic horses need dental care?
    Once a year
  46. Why don't wild horses need dental care?
    The angle they eat at while grazing helps keep teeth in good shape.  They also eat rougher forage.
  47. What does Occlusion mean?
    Teeth meet up nicely
  48. What does Malocclusion mean?
    Teeth do not meet up nicely