Pharmacology Bronchodilators 1

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kyleannkelsey
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248901
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Pharmacology Bronchodilators 1
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2013-11-24 21:55:04
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Pharmacology Bronchodilators
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Pharmacology Bronchodilators 1
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  1. The use of bronchodilators, anti-inflammatories and mast cell degranulation inhibitors in the respiratory system usually used to treat what diseases?
    Airway disorders: Asthma, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nasal allergies (allergic rhinitis)
  2. Bronchoconstriction can be caused by what normal physiological actions?
    Parasympathetic innervation of muscarinic 1 and 3 receptors
  3. Bronchodilation can be caused by what normal physiological actions?
    Adrenal Medulla releases epinephrine into the blood and interacts with B2 adrenergic receptors
  4. Are airways in humans innervated by the sympathetic nervous system?
    No
  5. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors are agonized or antagonized by atropine?
    Antagonized
  6. Alpha-adrenergic receptors are agonized or antagonized by Phentolamine and Prazosin?
    Antagonized
  7. Beta-adrenergic receptors are agonized or antagonized by Propranolol?
    Antagonized
  8. What are the ways that inhaled materials may cause bronchoconstriction?
    Trigger releases of mediators from mast cells, Stimulate afferent receptors to initiate constriction or release Substance P
  9. What mediates allergen caused mast cell degranulation?
    IgE antibodies
  10. What are the mast cell chemical mediators of anaphylaxis/bronchoconstriction?
    Histamine, Tryptase, Prostaglandin D4, Leukotriene C4 and Platelet activating factor
  11. Mast cell degranulation in the airways promotes what major things to happen?
    FEV1 to fall and bronchoconstriction
  12. Re-exposure to an allergen may cause the synthesis of what by mast and T cells?
    Interleukins 4 and 5, Granulocyte Macrophage colony stimulating factor, Tumor Necrosis factor and Tissue growth factor
  13. Cytokines (like TNF and GM-CSF) produced by T and Mast cells in response to re-exposure to an allergen cause what to happen?
    Activate Eosinophils and Neutrophils
  14. Activation of Eosinophils and Neutrophils by Cytokines, cause them to produce what chemical mediators?
    Eosinophil cationic Protein (ECP), Major basic protein (MBP), proteases and platelet activating factor
  15. Eosinophil cationic Protein (ECP), Major basic protein (MBP), proteases and platelet activating factor produced by activated eosinophils and neutrophils cause what physiological changes?
    Edema, Mucus hypersecretion, smooth muscle contraction and increase in bronchial reactivity
  16. The increase in what mediators is associated with “Late asthmatic Response”?
    Eosinophil cationic Protein (ECP), Major basic protein (MBP), proteases and platelet activating factor
  17. The “late asthmatic response” is associated with a fall in what?
    FEV1
  18. How long does the “late asthmatic response” happen after allergen exposure?
    2-8 hours
  19. What are the three approaches to managing asthma?
    Reverse acute bronchospasm, prevent recurrent episodes, and Treat hyper-responsiveness cause by inflammation
  20. What are the short acting B2 agonists used to reverse acute bronchospasm?
    Albuterol, Pirbuterol and Terbutaline/Epinephrine
  21. Terbutaline/Epinephrine shows a distinct advantage in reversing acute bronchospasm over either component alone (True/False)
    False
  22. What receptors would Terbutaline/Epinephrine interact with?
    Interacts with B2, B1, a1 and a2
  23. What are the adverse effects of Terbutaline/Epinephrine or other B2 agonists?
    Arrhythmias, tremors, muscle cramps, metabolic disturbances and loss of effectiveness with chronic use
  24. Is Ipratropium a first line therapy for acute bronchoconstriction?
    No
  25. What is the MOA of Ipratropium for treatment of bronchospasm?
    Muscarinic antagonist
  26. Ipratropium is usually used alone or in combination?
    In combination with B-2 agonists
  27. What is the MOA for Prednisone, Methylprednisone and Prednisolone?
    Anti-inflammatory steroids/Corticosteroids
  28. What is the most effective available therapy to prevent recurrent episodes of asthma?
    Daily prophylactic steroid anti-inflammatories
  29. What are the daily prophylactic steroid anti-inflammatories used to prevent recurrent asthma?
    Beclomethasone, Budesonide, Flunisolide, Fluticasone and Triamcinolone
  30. What are nasal preparations of Steroid anti-inflammatories used to treat?
    Allergic Rhinitis

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