Pharmacology Antihypertensives 2

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Pharmacology Antihypertensives 2
2013-11-24 21:59:36
Pharmacology Antihypertensives

Pharmacology Antihypertensives 2
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  1. For stage 1 Hypertension, what drugs are commonly selected?
    Thiazide type diuretics, ACEI, ARB or CCBs
  2. For stage 1 Hypertension, what drugs are commonly selected?
    2 drug combination of: Thiazide type diuretics, ACEI, ARB or CCBs
  3. What drugs would you use to treat hypertension with compelling indications?
    Diuretics, ACEI, ARB, BB and CCBs
  4. If initial treatment with an antihypertensive does not adequately control hypertension, what is the next step?
    Dose adjustment or addition of another drug
  5. What is the action of aldosterone on the kidney tubules?
    Stimulates Na reabsorption and K excretion in the late distal tubule and collecting duct
  6. Aldosterone causes blood pressure to rise or drop?
  7. What is the MOA of Spirolactone?
    Blocks aldosterone receptors in the late distal tubule and collecting duct
  8. What is the MOA of Triamterene?
    Blocks aldosterone receptors in the late distal tubule and collecting duct
  9. What drugs are usually the first choice for treatment of Hypertension?
    Thiazide Diuretics
  10. Name the Thiazide Diuretics:
    Hydrochlorothiazide and Chlorthalidone
  11. What is the clinical effect of Thiazide diuretics?
    Reduced plasma volume and body Na
  12. What is the MOA for Thiazide diuretics?
    Blocks the Na+/Cl- transporter in the distal tubule, decreasing Na reabsorption
  13. Thiazide diuretics are often used as a monotherapy for treatment of what?
    Mild to Moderate Hypertension
  14. Are Thiazide diuretics use in combination with other drugs?
  15. In severe hypertension are thiazide diuretics usually necessary?
  16. What type of Hypertension are Thiazide diuretics most useful at treating?
    Volume expanded hypertension
  17. What is the benefit of adding a K sparing diuretic to a Thiazide diuretic?
    K sparing diuretics, reduce K excretion, preventing Thiazide diuretic induced hypokalemia
  18. What is a serious side effect of Thiazide diuretics and why?
    Hypokalemia, Na excretion is coupled with K excretion
  19. What type of supplementation may be necessary with Thiazide diuretics?
  20. Are Thiazide diuretics cheap or expensive, why?
    Cheap, generics available
  21. What ways can you reduce the risk of Hypokalemia with Thiazide diuretic use?
    Potassium Supplementation and Addition of K sparing diuretics
  22. B1 adrenergic receptors blockers have what clinical effects that lead to lower blood pressure?
    Reduction in: CO, renin release and Sympathetic outflow
  23. What are the B-adrenergic receptor blockers?
    Propranolol, pindolol, nadolol, atenolol, metoprolol, esmolol, carvedilol and labetolol
  24. What can help you identify a B adrenergic receptor blocker by its name?
    Ending –olol or –lol
  25. Rank the following in terms of effectiveness in lowering blood pressure:
    • Non-selective, Cardioselective and Mixed B-blockers
    • All equally effective
  26. Which beta blocker has intrinsic sympathomimetic activity?
  27. Nadolol has a long or short DOA?
  28. Esmolol has a long or short DOA?
  29. Why does Esmolol have a short DOA?
    Hydrolysis by RBC esterases
  30. When is Esmolol used?
  31. How is Esmolol administered?
  32. What are the vasodilator Beta Blockers?
    Carvedilol, Labetalol, Nebivolol
  33. Carvedilol and Labetalol block what receptors?
    B1, B2 and a1
  34. Nebivolol blocks what receptors?
    B1 and B2 (also enhances NO)
  35. Are B-blockers a first line drug class for Hypertension?
  36. Why are B-blockers no longer first line drugs for treating Hypertension?
    Les effective in preventing CV events like stroke than other drugs
  37. What group may Beta-blockers be potentially less effective in?
    African Americans
  38. What is the relative cost of beta-blockers, why?
    Cheap, generic available