Pharmacology Antihypertensives 3

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kyleannkelsey
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248906
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Pharmacology Antihypertensives 3
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2013-11-24 22:00:28
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Pharmacology Antihypertensives
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Pharmacology Antihypertensives 3
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  1. What type of Hypertension are Beta-blockers most useful in treating?
    • Hypertension accompanied by:
    • Angina, HF, Migraine and MI
  2. What are the adverse effects of Beta blockers?
    Bradycardia, Worsening HF and HB, Withdrawal, Hypoglycemia in DM, bronchospasm w/asthma, Fatigue, cold hands, CNS effects
  3. What causes withdrawal effects in Beta blockers?
    CV hyper-responsiveness
  4. What adverse effect can B-blockers have on Diabetics?
    Hypoglycemia
  5. Name the alpha-adrenergic receptor blockers.
    Phentolamine, Phenoxybenzamine, Prazosin, Terazosin and Doxazosin
  6. How can you identify an alpha 1-adrenergic receptor blocker by name?
    ending –azosin or –osin
  7. What are the Non-selective alpha-adrenergic receptor blockers?
    Phentolamine and Phenoxybenzamine
  8. What are the alpha 1-adrenergic receptor blockers?
    Prazosin, Terazosin and Doxazosin
  9. What is the MOA for alpha-adrenergic receptor blockers?
    Blocks a-adrenergic receptors that cause vasoconstriction
  10. What kind of Hypertension are non-selective alpha-blockers used to treat?
    Hypertensive crises in pheochromocytoma (little use overall)
  11. (True/False) Alpha-blockers are widely used for many hypertensive situations.
    False, little use
  12. Are Alpha 1-adrenergic receptor blockers a first line therapy for Hypertension?
    No
  13. What group of patients are alpha 1-receptor blockers most useful in?
    Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
  14. Are alpha 1-adrenergic receptor blockers commonly use as adjunct therapy?
    No, limited use
  15. What are the adverse effects of alpha 1-blockers?
    Postural hypotension, reflex tachycardia, fatigue, fainting, dizziness
  16. Why are alpha 1-blockers not first line therapy for Hypertension?
    Less effective than other therapies in reducing risk of adverse CV events, like HF
  17. Renin is secreted at what location?
    Afferent arteriole of the kidney
  18. Describe the location and pattern of production for Angiotensinogen?
    Liver, continuous production
  19. What effect does agonist activity on the Angiotensin II Type 1 receptors in the Kidneys have?
    ↑Na reabsorption, ↑ Aldosterone effects, ↑ Vasoconstriction
  20. What effect does agonist activity on the Angiotensin II Type 1 receptors in the CNS have?
    ↑ Sympathetic activity
  21. What effect does agonist activity on the Angiotensin II Type 1 receptors in the Heart have?
    ↑ Hypertrophy and Fibrosis
  22. What effect does agonist activity on the Angiotensin II Type 1 receptors in the Vessels have?
    ↑ Vasoconstriction, ↑ Inflammation, ↑ Atherosclerosis
  23. Ace inhibitors have what effect on Bradykinin?
    Inhibit breakdown of bradykinin
  24. Bradykinin buildup due to ACE inhibitor use, leads to what physiological effects?
    Vasodilation and increased capillary permeability
  25. How can you identify an ACE inhibitor by name?
    Ending –pril
  26. What are the active ACE inhibitors?
    Lisinopril and captopril
  27. What are the Prodrug ACE inhibitors?
    Enalapril, Benazepril, ramipril, fosinopril, perindopril, quinapril, moexipril, trandolapril
  28. What is the active form of Enalapril called?
    Enelaprilat
  29. Inhibition of ACE reduces circulating ___________.
    Angiotensin II
  30. What are the clinical effects of ACE inhibitors?
    ↓ systemic arterial resistance, ↓ systole and diastolic mean arterial pressure
  31. What effect do ACE inhibitors have on CO and HR?
    No effect
  32. What effect do ACE inhibitors have on Aldosterone secretion?
    Reduces
  33. What effect do ACE inhibitors have on tissue remodeling?
    Reduces
  34. What effect do ACE inhibitors have on Regional blood flow?
    ↑ blood flow and large artery compliance
  35. Are ACE inhibitors well tolerated?
    Yes
  36. Are ACE inhibitors ever used in monotherapy?
    Yes, good choice for monotherapy
  37. What group are ACE inhibitors less effective in?
    African Americans
  38. What is the relative cost of ACE inhibitors?
    Low cost, generics available

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