Pharmacology Antihypertensives 5

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kyleannkelsey
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248909
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Pharmacology Antihypertensives 5
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2013-11-24 22:02:14
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Pharmacology Antihypertensives
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Pharmacology Antihypertensives 5
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  1. What is the MOA for Hydralazine?
    Inhibits Ca channels, creates NO causing relaxation of vascular smooth muscle
  2. Is Hydralazine used as a first line monotherapy?
    No, not used as either
  3. Hydralazine is usually used in combination with what?
    A diuretic
  4. When Hydralazine is used for CHF, what group is it most effective in?
    African Americans
  5. What situations is Hydralazine used for?
    Refractory hypertension and hypertension with CHF
  6. Describe the bioavailability of Hydralazine.
    Dependent on genetics (slow/fast acetylators)
  7. What are the adverse effects of Hydralazine?
    Fluid retention, hypotension, Lupus-like symptoms, dry mouth, headache, nausea and edema
  8. How long is the duration of Lupus –like side effects associated with Hydralazine?
    Reversible upon discontinuation
  9. Lupus like side effects may occur with Hydralazine under what conditions?
    Chronic use
  10. What is the MOA of Minoxidil?
    K channel opener, causing hyperpolarization and relaxation in vascular smooth muscle
  11. What is the clinical effect of Minoxidil?
    Directly decreases peripheral vascular resistance and lowers BP
  12. What is Minoxidil used for?
    Refractory Hypertension only
  13. What is the DOA for Minoxidil?
    24 hours (long)
  14. Is Minoxidil very efficacious?
    Yes, highly efficacious
  15. What are the adverse effects of Minoxidil?
    Fluid retention, edema, tachycardia and palpitations, hypertrichosis
  16. What is Minoxidil usually used in combination with?
    B-blockers and a diuretic
  17. Minoxidil is an ingredient in what non-antihypertensive?
    Rogaine
  18. What patients are likely to suffer from hypertrichosis when using Minoxidil?
    Those on long term therapy
  19. What are the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonists used to treat hypertension?
    Clonidine, Guanfacine, Methyldopa
  20. What is the MOA for alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonists in the treatment of hypertension?
    Inhibits neurons in Brainstem, causing centrally mediated vasodilation and reduction in HR
  21. Rank the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonists in terms of efficacy?
    All about equivalent
  22. What are alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonists used for?
    Mild to moderate hypertension
  23. Are alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonists used for monotherapy?
    No
  24. What are the adverse effects of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonists?
    Hypotension, Sedation, Withdrawal, Dry mouth and Vivid dreams
  25. What percent of patients on alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonists experience Sedation?
    40%
  26. What percent of patients on alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonists experience Dry mouth?
    20%
  27. What are the withdrawal symptoms of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonists?
    Hypertension, tachycardia, nervousness and excitement
  28. How are Direct Vasodilators used?
    IV to treat hypertensive emergencies
  29. What are the Direct Vasodilators?
    Nitroprusside, Diazoxide, Fenoldopam
  30. What is the MOA for Nitroprusside?
    NO producer
  31. What is the MOA for Diazoxide?
    K channel opener
  32. What is the MOA for Fenoldopam?
    Dopamine receptor agonist
  33. What is the MOA of Respirine?
    Depletes NOR and EPI from sympathetic nerve terminals and adrenal medulla (can also do the same in brain)
  34. What are the adverse effects of Reserpine?
    Postural Hypotension, fluid retention, Nightmares, impaired ejaculation, sedation and suicidal thoughts
  35. Is Reserpine commonly used?
    No, rarely, Drug of last resort
  36. What groups of Antihypertensives can be used to Treat Hypertension in patients with Heart Failure?
    Diuretics, B-blockers, ACE inhibitors, ARBs
  37. What groups of Antihypertensives can NOT be used to Treat Hypertension in patients with heart Failure?
    CCBs
  38. What groups of Antihypertensives can be used to Treat Hypertension in patients post MI?
    B-blockers, ACE inhibitors, ARBs
  39. What groups of Antihypertensives can NOT be used to Treat Hypertension in patients post MI?
    Diuretics and CCBs
  40. What groups of Antihypertensives can NOT be used to Treat Hypertension in patients with coronary Disease?
    All can be used
  41. What groups of Antihypertensives can be used to Treat Hypertension in patients with coronary Disease?
    All: Diuretics, B-blockers, ACE inhibitors, ARBs and CCBs
  42. What groups of Antihypertensives can be used to Treat Hypertension in patients with Diabetes?
    ACE inhibitors, ARBs and CCBs
  43. What groups of Antihypertensives can NOT be used to Treat Hypertension in patients with Diabetes?
    Diuretics and B-blockers
  44. What groups of Antihypertensives can be used to Treat Hypertension in patients trying to prevent stroke?
    Diuretics, ACE inhibitors, ARBs
  45. What groups of Antihypertensives can NOT be used to Treat Hypertension in patients trying to prevent stroke?
    B-blockers and CCBs
  46. What groups of Antihypertensives can be used to Treat Hypertension in patients with kidney disease?
    ACE inhibitors and ARBs
  47. What groups of Antihypertensives can NOT be used to Treat Hypertension in patients with kidney disease?
    Diuretics, B-blockers and CCBs

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