Botany 11.24.13

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Author:
hellotrudy
ID:
248920
Filename:
Botany 11.24.13
Updated:
2013-11-25 02:38:56
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botany
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Description:
st. john's wart
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  1. What is St. John's Wort?
    • Family: Clusiacea
    • Name: Hypericum perforatum
    • European native
    • Some native spp. but they are not as medicinal as the European kind
    • Klamath weed
  2. What's in it?
    • Used in medicine at least since Hippocrates (400BC)
    • Used by Native Americans
    • St. John's day (June 24)
    • Greek "hypericon" (traditional use against demons, witchcraft)
    • Leaves form cross shape (holy herb)
    • Tannins
    • Flavonoids
    • Terpene oils
    •    Hypercin
    •    Pseudohypercin
  3. What is it used for?
    • Antidepressant
    •   Some studies show as effective as Zoloft
    •   Mild to moderate depression
    • External wounds
    • Drive away phantasms, ghosts, spooks
    •   Paracelsus
    • Removes dangerous influences at home
    • May be used for digestion
  4. What is SJW used as?
    • Neuralgia
    • Anti-inflammatory
    • Sedative
  5. How is it prepared?
    • Extract
    • Capsule
    • Fresh flowering top oils extract
    • $400 million/year
    • 5th top herb in US
    • 130 million doses prescribed in Germany in 1999
    • Prescribed in Germany in 1989
  6. What is Hawthorn?
    • Family: Rosaceae
    • Name: Crateagus monogyna/ C. laevigata
    • Includes North America
    • Important ornamental 
    • Native to temperate world
  7. What's in it?
    • Polyphenolics
    •   Phenolics linked together
    • Flavanoids & procyanidins
    •   Leaves and flowers
    •   Fruits
    •      Procyanidins
    •      Entire extract is used (not sure which        cmpd is best)
  8. Used for?
    • One of the most popular prescribed herbs in Europe
    • 20th in sales in US
    • Cardiac performance
    •    Congestive heart failure
    •    Stage II & I 
    •    Nervous heart complaints
  9. How is Hawthorn used?
    • Leaf with flowers
    • Infusion (10-15 min)
    • Tincture
    • Capsules
    •    Extract 
    •    Leaf/root powder
  10. Hawthorn 
    • Is a vasodilator
    • Increases coronary blood flow
    • Improves heart beat
    • Its an ACE inhibitor (helps stop it)
    • [Similar to other drugs]
    • [Ace → constriction of vessels → higher   blood pressure]
    • Reduces high blood pressure kidney problems 
    • Less shortness of breath, etc
  11. What is Grindelia?
    • Family: Asteraceae
    • Name: Grindelia squarrosa 
    • Native to prairie & Western US
    • Gumweed
  12. What is Gumweed/ Grindelia?
    • Diterpenes
    •    Copius amounts
    • Flavonoids
  13. What is gumweed/grindelia used for?
    • Wash sores, skin problems
    • Asthma
    • Coughs
    • Relax smooth muscles
  14. How is it prepared?
    • Tincture
    •     45% alcohol
    • Decoction
    •    3x/day (drink)
  15. Chaste Tree
    • Family: Verbenaceae
    • Name: Vitex agnus-castus
    • Woody shrub or tree
    • Native to Mediterranean/Middle east/W. Asia
    • Anaphrodesiac
    •  Chew berries to reduce urges
  16. What is in Vitex?
    • Iridoid glycosides
    •    Acubin, agnuside
    • Flavonoids
    •    Casticin
    • Diterpenes
    • "Chemicals" seem to act on pituitary glands
    • No single active chemical
  17. Vitex is good medicine for ...
    • "Normalizes pituitary function"
    • "Normalize activity of female sex hormones"
    • Galactogogue
    • Helps:
    •    Dysmenorrhea
    •    Helpful in menopause
    •    Ease breast tenderness
    • Reduces progesterone production
    • May help reduce pms
    •    May cure over time (Hoffman: 1yr or longer)
    • Help adjust after taking pills with progesterone
    • Improve ovulation
    •    After 10 days
  18. How is vitex used?
    • Used berries, leaves
    •   >2500 years of use
    • Tincture
    •   30-40 mg dried fruit
    •   50-70% alcohol
    • Infusion 
    •   of the berries (hot leaves)
    • Standardized fruit extract
    •   5%
    • Decoction of leaves,flowers & fruits
  19. Lobelia
    • Family: Campanulaceae
    • Name: Lobelia inflata
    • L. Siphilitica
    • L. Spicata
    • L. Cardinalis
    • Native to N. American Prairie
  20. How is it used?
    • Antiasthmatic
    • Antispasmodic, expectorant
    • Emetic
    • When relaxation is needed
    • CNS depression/depressant
  21. Controversy
    • Considered toxic by some
    • Acts similar to nicotine
    • Steven Foster "plant has been implicated in deaths from improper use as a home remedy"
    • Eclectics had "high regard: for its use
  22. How is it used?
    • Tincture (5mls 3x/a day)
    • Infusion
    • Dried herb capsules
  23. Cranberry
    • Family: Ericaceae
    • Name: Vaccinium macrocarpon
    • Native to North America
    •   Particularly upper midwest,NE
    •   Boggy habitat
    •   Low N, acid soils
  24. What's in Cranberry?
    • Phenolics
    • Anthocyanins
    • Malic and Citric acids
    • "Antioxidants"
  25. Cranberry is good medicine for...
    • Cranberry chemicals reduce bacterial adherence to body linings
    • Cranberry chemicals are useful for treating UTI
    • Prevent scurvy (inc Vit C)
    • Poultices (N.Am)
    • May help with bladder stones
    • Listening
  26. Other studies show
    • Effectiveness of cranberry for UTIs
    • "no known limits on duration of use"
    • Takes 2-5 days to work
    • Optimal 12-15 days 
    • Serious disease 4-8 weeks
    • Prevent plague and gum disease
    • Antioxidant effects 
    •    Strong in vitro
    • Same as placebo in vivo
    •   Suggest lack of anti-cancer or heart protective effects
    • Inhibits Helicobacter pylori adhesion and suppresses infection
    • Help eradicate H. pylori (along with standard treatments in women)

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