What are the differences between endotoxin and exotoxins?
endotoxins are part of the outer portion of the gram negative cell wall they are made up from the lipid part of LPS.. Exotoxins are proteins that are produced inside the bacterium which release in the surrounding medium
What are the 3 exotoxins and there functions?
cytotoxins-kill host cells or effect their function
neurotoxins- interfere with nerve impulses
enterotoxins- effects cells in the gastrointestinal tract
What are antitoxins?
antibodies produced by the the body against exotoxins
What are toxoids?
inactivated exotoxins injected into the body to produce immunity
What is the purpose for sweat and tears?
sweat contains lysozyme and enyzme that can break down gram positive cell wall this enyzme is also found in tears, saliva, nasal and tissue fluids
What is sebum?
produced by the sebaceous glands forms protective film over surface of skin low ph discourages bacterial growth
What is a lacrimal apparatus?
group of structure that manufacturers and drain away tears, keeps microbes from collecting on the surface of the eye
What does saliva do?
Washes a microbes in mouth and washes from the surface of teeth
What is symbiosis?
the host and microbiota living together
What is commensalism?
if one benefits and the other isn't harmed
What are opportunistic pathogens
are organisms which do not normally cause disease if the person is weakened
What is septicemia?
presence of bacteria of the blood that multiply
What is contract transmission?
spread of disease by direct or indirect contact or by droplet transmission.
What is indirect contact?
spread to susceptible host through a non living object which is called a fomite
What is droplet transmission?
mucus droplets spread a short distance by talking, sneezing, coughing
What is vehicle transmission?
transmission of disease agents by a medium such as food water or air more than 1 meter...
What is vector transmission ?
animals which carry pathogens form one host to another ex arthoropods
What is incidence?
the fraction of a population that contracts the disease during a particular time period
What is prevalence?
fractions of a populations having the disease at a specified time
What is sporadic?
occurs only occasionally
What is endemic?
What is a epidemic?
many people in a given area acquire a certain disease in a short period of time
What is pandemic?
world wide epidemci
Where are b and t cells mature?
b cells in the blood marrow and t cells thymus
What are symptoms?
subjective changes in body function pain malaise not observable
What are signs?
objective changes that can be viewed and observed
What is syndrome?
a group of symptoms or signs which may always accompany a particular disease
What is a communicable or non communicable disease?
c-disease is disease which spreads from one host to another
nc- not spread form host to host .. opportunistic infections caused by normal flora
What are plasmids? What is lysogenic ?
circular dna of the cytoplasm which can carry virulence factors for lysogenic phages.. lysogenic phages are incorporated in the cell wall
What is non specific defense?
defenses that protect against any pathogen regardless of species .. 2 lines of defense first skin and mucos membrane.
second phagocytes inflammation and fever
What is a specific defense.
immunity 3rd line of defense effective against particular pathogens
What are antigens?
organisms or substances that provoke an immune response
the immune response involves antibodies and specialized lymphocytes
antigens and immune response are non self
What are antibodies?
proteins made in response to an antigen each antibody has 2 identical sites for binding antigens
What are IgG?
are the most antibodies in serum can cross the placenta
What is IgM
is the largest with the shortest life .. enhances phagacytosis first antibody to appear in response to antigen exposure antigens will be acute
What is IgE?
anibodies that produce the cells that cause allergic reaction .. attaches to the cells and produce histamine
What is IgD?
act as antigen receptors for be cells, found in blood and lymph
What is crisis?
period of sweating indicates that temperature is falling
What is kinases?
It is produced by bacteria break down firbrin and dissolve clots formed by the body to isolate infections
What is necrotizing factors
penetration defense the kills body cells
What is hypothermic factor
penetration defense that decreases body temperature
what is lecithinase
penertration defense that detroys plasma membrane
what is siderophores
penertration defense scavenges iron from body fluids
What os attenuated whole agent vaccination?
uses living but weakened microbes can acheive lifelong effects
what are subunit vaccinations
only antigenic fragments for a microorganisms are safer since they cannot reproduce int the receipent
What are conjugated vaccines
vaccines based on capsular polysaccharides best for childred