- Closed (blunt) trauma: head
- striking hard surface, or object striking head.
- Dura intact. Causes contusions
- (focal) and concussions (diffuse)
- Open (penetrating) trauma: injury
- tears scalp tissue and exposes skull, dura mater or brain. Causes skull fractures or brain lacerations.
B. Closed Head Injury
1. Focal Brain Injuries - Contusions
- Definition/Etiology: bruising of
- brain tissue
- Pathophysiology: damage results
- from compression of skull at point of impact and rebound. Small tears in blood vessels.
1. coup: bruising under injury site
2. countercoup: bruising opposite traumatized site
- d. Clinical
1. loss of consciousness
2. loss of reflexes
3. brief dec in HR, BP
4. residual deficits
- Diagnosis: x-rays, MRI, CT scans
- Treatment: controlling ICP,
- managing symptoms