Marine Threats and Conservation

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rsuarez3
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Marine Threats and Conservation
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2013-11-25 15:08:38
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  1. Marine Threats
    –Oil spills

    –Untreated sewage

    –Heavy siltation

    –Eutrophication (nutrient enrichment)

    –Persistent organic pollutants (POP’s)

    –Heavy metals from mine tailings and other sources

    –Radioactive substances

    –Marine litter–Invasive Species

    –Cruise Ships
  2. Marine Pollutants
    •Petroleum hydrocarbons

    •Plastics

    •Pesticides

    •Heavy metals

    •Sewage

    •Radioactive waste

    •Thermal effluents
  3. Petroleum Hydrocarbons
    Oil Spills
  4. Exxon Valdez (1989)- Prince William Sound, Alaska
    •10 million gallons of oil spilled

    •400 miles of shore line affected

    •$3 billion and 2 summers cleaning
  5. Spain November 19, 2002
    •The Prestige: a 26-year-old Bahamas-flagged single hulled vessel

    •Sunk with 20 million gallons of viscous fuel oil

    •Hundreds of miles of rugged coastline have been fouled by the stricken Prestige's cargo, destroying wildlife and wrecking the area's renowned fisheries and shellfish industry.
  6. Persian Gulf War (1991)
    •240 million gallons of oil spilled
  7. Deepwater Horizon (3)
    •BP offshore drilling rig (Deepwater Horizon) April 20, 2010; 50 miles off Louisiana

    •Spilling 5,000 barrels/day = 200,000 gal/day

    •210 Million Gallons
  8. Containing oil spills: (3)
    •Floating booms- contain oil and then pump into other ship

    •Burning oil off

    •Chemical dispersants

    •Bioremediation- bacteria
  9. Relative amts of petroleum in the ocean:
    River runoff 31.1%

    Tanker operations 21.8%

    Coastal facilities 13.1%

    Atmospheric fallout 9.8%

    Natural seepage 9.8%

    Other transportation activities 9.8%

    Tanker accidents 3.3%

    Offshore petroleum production 1.3%
  10. Plastics (2)
    •100,000 marine mammals & 2 million sea birds die each year after ingesting or being trapped in plastic debris

    •WHOI 1987 survey off N.E. coast of U.S.: found 46,000 pieces of plastic floating on surface
  11. North Pacific Subtropical Gyre
    •“Great Pacific Garbage Patch”

    •Estimate: 46,000 pieces of floating garbage/mi2.
  12. North Pacific Subtropical Gyre
    135° to 155°W and 35° to 42°N
  13. Pesticides & Herbicides (3)
    • Designed to kill a variety ofpests, such as mosquitoes,agricultural pests and weeds.

    • Toxin enters food chain andeffects non targeted species

    • Pesticide toxicity often effectshuman health Rachael Carson-Silent Spring
  14. Pesticides
    Halogenated hydrocarbons organochlorines:Include DDT and PCBs, which are slow to biodegrade

    Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane (DDT):

    • Used as a pesticide from 1939-late 1960s.

    • Fat soluble compound.

    • The world’s production has substantially.decreased since it was banned in the West

    • Detected in mud of deep sea and snow & iceof Antarctica.
  15. Polychloronated biphenyls (PCBs)
    •Produced since 1944

    •Banned in U.S. by 1979

    •Used in production of electrical equipment, paints, plastics, adhesives, and coating compounds…

    •Found everywhere in the ocean

    •Released in environment by unregulated incineration of discarded products
  16. DDT & PCBs affects:
    •Copepod and oyster development.

    •Death of shrimp and a variety of fish.
  17. Toxic Metals (3)
    Heavy metals resist biodegradation

    Natural occurrence- volcanoes

    •Mercury (Hg)- toxic when attached to short carbon-chain alkyl group, strongly neurotoxic, birth defects

    •Lead (Pb)- from batteries, sewage, fuel additives, neurotoxic effects, mental development in children

    •Cadmium (Cd)- from batteries, sewage, electroplating factories, effects on human kidney function, bone deformities
  18. Heavy Metals
    5 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    •Produced since 1944

    •Banned in U.S. by 1979

    •Used in production of electrical equipment, paints, plastics, adhesives, and coating compounds…

    •Found everywhere in the ocean

    •Released in environment by unregulated incineration of discarded productsDDT & PCBs affects:

    •Copepod and oyster development.•Death of shrimp and a variety of fish.BiomagnificationHg, Pb, Cd, Cu Heavy metals resist biodegradation Natural occurrence- volcanoes

    •Mercury (Hg)- toxic when attached to short carbon-chain alkyl group, strongly neurotoxic, birthdefects

    •Lead (Pb)- from batteries, sewage, fuel additives, neurotoxic effects, mental development in children

    •Cadmium (Cd)- from batteries, sewage, electroplating factories, effects on human kidney function, bone deformitiesToxic MetalsMinamata Disease (1953-1960)–Japan

    •Industrial pollution from plastic plant; dumped mercuric chloride into bay.

    •Ingestion of Hg tainted shellfish  43 dead and 700 permanently disabled.

    •Symptoms: kidney damage, neuromuscular deterioration, birth defects,insanity,   death.

    •Bay is still unusable for fishing and shell fishing.

    •Surviving victims received $24,200 as settlement.
  19. Cu:
    •Tributyl tin (antifouling paint for boats).

    •Banned in U.S. 1980s.

    •Acts as an immunosuppressor.

    •Accumulations unusually high in small whales.

    •May be associated with strandings.
  20. Pb:
    •Leaded gasoline invented 1920’s.

    •Enters water from automobile exhaust, runoff and atmospheric fallout of industrial waste and landfills, mines, dumps.

    •Leaded gas banned in US in 1980’s has reduced pollution in ocean.
  21. Pac Baroness
    freighter carrying 21,000 metric tons of finely powdered Cu sank in 448 m in

    •Tainted water detected 41km down current of wreck.

    •Major fishing zone for rock cod and Dover sole.
  22. Point Source Pollution (2)
    •Causes disease outbreaks

    •Contributes to eutrophication
  23. Sewage Discharge and Agricultural Runoff
    •nutrient enrichment of coastal waters

    •physiological consequences on corals

    •ecological consequences

    –phytoplankton bloom reduces light penetration

    –benthic seaweeds overgrow and smother corals
  24. Types of Non-Point Source Pollution
    •Sediments from coastal urban and agricultural development

    •Nutrients from detergents, fertilizers, leaky septic tanks, and domesticated animals

    •Pesticides (home use, agricultural, & golf courses)
  25. Types of Non-Point Source Pollution
    •Automobile wastes such as combusted motor oil, tire rubber, brake pad dust, coolant, etc.

    •Waste water from swimming pools and aquaculture ponds
  26. Munitions Dumping
    Millions of pounds of mustard gas canisters were jettisoned into the Atlantic Ocean off New Jersey (1964) and elsewhere. (Photo: The U.S. Army)
  27. Noise Pollution
    •Marine life can be susceptible to noise or sound pollution:

    –passing ships, oil exploration seismic surveys, and naval low-frequency active sonar.

    •Sound travels more rapidly and over larger distances in the sea than in the atmosphere.

    •Between 1950 and 1975, ambient noise in the ocean increased by about ten times.
  28. Noise Pollution Part 2
    •Noise also makes species communicate louder, which is called the Lombard vocal response.

    – Whale songs are longer when submarine-detectors are on.

    •If creatures don't "speak" loud enough, their voice can be masked by anthropogenic sounds.

    •These unheard voices might be warnings, finding of prey, or preparations of net-bubbling.

    •When one species begins speaking louder, it will mask other specie voices, causing the whole ecosystem to eventually speak louder.
  29. Invasive Species
    •Two methods of introduction:

    •Accidental:

    –Ballast water

    –Aquarium

    –SF Bay has over 220 non-natives

    •Purposely: Trying to create new fisheries.
  30. Cruise Ship Pollution
    •Cruise Ships

    –Can produce massive amounts of wastes.

    –Small floating cities.

    •Up to 5,000 passengers/crew.–Travel to sensitive ocean locations.

    –Can dump untreated sewage as long as they are outside state water.

    •~25,000 gallons per day.
  31. Cruise Ship Pollution Part 2
    •Not subject to same laws (clean water act)

    –Why not?

    –Flagged in Bahamas, Panama, or Liberia

    •Ships only have to follow laws of flagged country.

    –Labor, tax, and environmental laws

    •Flags of Convenience.

    •30% of Liberian budget from open ship registry based in Virginia.
  32. What can we do?
    •Overall, good progress has been made on reducing Persistent organic pollutants (POP’s), with the exception of the Arctic.

    •Oil discharges and spills to the Seas has been reduced by 63% compared to the mid-80s.

    •Tanker accidents have gone down by 75%, from tanker operations by 90% and from industrial discharges by some 90%.

    •Partly as a result of the shift to double-hulled tankers.
  33. What can we do? Part 2
    •Reduce the ecological footprint left behind by the average human.

    •The second way is for humans, individually, to pollute less. That requires social and political will.

    •The most important strategy for reducing marine pollution is education

    –Awareness

    –Research

    –Dissemination

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