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Define a hazard
material capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety, or the environment or capable of causing harm
Define an exposure
- process by which people, animals, the environment, and equipment are subjected to or come in contact with a hazardous material
- has been taken into the body
- residue of a chemical that has been released and contacts people, the environment, animals, tools, etc
- contamination is on the surface
What is a secondary contamination?
- occurs when a person or object transfer the contamination or the source of contamination to another person or object by direct contact
- ex: bloody glove on vehicle door handle
What are the 4 routes of entry for harmful substances to enter the body?
- inhalation (70%)
- ingestion (20%)
- absorption (8%)
- injection (2%)
What is a chronic health hazard?
- adverse effect occurring after a long term exposure to a substance
- may result in cancer, loss of lung function, or skin rashes
What is an acute health effect?
- adverse health effects caused by relatively short exposure periods that produce observable conditions such as eye irritation, coughing, dizziness, skin burns
- includes one time exposures
What is a sensitizer?
- a chemical that causes a substantial proportion of exposed people or animals to develop an allergic reaction in normal tissue after repeated exposure to the chemical
- ex: 99 bee stings with no reaction, 100th sting causes anaphylaxis
What is a convulsant?
- chemical capable of causing convulsions or seizures when absorbed by the body
- includes nerve agents sarin and VX (nerve gas)
What is a corrosive?
- chemical which either dissolve tissue or corrode metal
- can be acid or base
What is an oxidizer?
- capable of accelerating or initiating a fire
- ex: nitrates, x-oxides, chlorine, peroxide, x-perchlorate
What are carcinogens?
- cancer causing agents
- ex: radiation, asbestos, benzene, chromium VI, cadmium, dioxins, PCBs, ethylene oxide, vinyl chloride, beryllium, radon, tobacco/wood smoke, shift work, diesel exhaust, formaldehyde
- types of damage possible from a hazardous material
- types of chemical warfare agents
Types of weapons of mass destruction
- nerve agents
- blister agents
- choking agents
How do nerve agents enter the body?
lungs or skin
- ways that nerve agents affect the body
- s - salivation
- L - lachrymation
- U - urination
- D - defecation
- G - gastric disturbances
- E - emesis
- M - miosis (pinpoint pupils), muscular spasms
True or False: Nerve agents are gases, not liquids.
false, they are liquids
What is sulfur mustard?
- a blister agent used in WWI
- injures skin and lungs
- can be fatal
- side effects may not appear for 2 to 24 hrs after exposure
- once blistering occurs, decon will not help
- water will not help as it is an oil
What is lewisite?
- blistering agent much like sulfur mustard
- arsenic based
- can cause vomiting/hypotension
- exposure will cause immediate px
- decon is required
- is a carcinogen
What is cyanide?
- prevents the body from using O2
- enters the body through the lungs
- hydrogen cyanide smells like bitter almonds
- s/s include vomiting and dizziness
What are choking agents?
- designed to incapacitate rather than kill
- may result in pulmonary edema
What are irritants?
- generally used for riot control
- cause px and burning in exposed skin, eyes, and mucous membranes
- symptoms occur within seconds and can last up to hours
- usually no lasting effects
What are the 7 primary ways to identify hazmat?
- shipping papers or docs
- container shape/type
- detection equipment
- type of occupancy/locations
What is considered bulk shipment?
- liquids: more than 119 gallons
- solids: more than 882 pounds
- gases: water capacity of container more than 1,000 pounds
What are the three types of bulk storage containers?
- large volume horizontal tanks (liquids with no pressure)
- ASTs (above ground storage tanks) and USTs (underground storage tanks) - both can be pressurized, typically hold flammable/combustible materials, typically round to evenly distribute pressure
- pressurized horizontal tanks
What are the characteristics of a pressurized horizontal tank?
- rounded ends in order to evenly distribute pressure
- can hold a few hundred to several thousand gallons
- generally filled to 80% capacity to make room for vapor pressure
What are the characteristics of a tote?
- portable plastic tanks surrounded by a stainless steel web that adds both structural stability and protection
- can hold up to a few hundred gallons
- can be hazardous for shipping or storage
How much can an IM-101/IMO type 1 tank hold?
6,000 gallon capacity
What is the internal working psi of an IM-101/IMO type 1?
What does IM-101/IMO type 1 normally contain?
mild corrosives, food-grade products, flammable liquids
How much IM-102/IMO type 2 tank hold?
6,000 gallon capacity
What is the internal working psi of an IM-102/IMO type 2 tank?
What does the spec 51 or IMO type 5 tank usually carry?
liquified gases like propane and butane
What is the psi of a spec 51/IMO type 5 tank?
several hundred psi
What kind of tank is an IMO type 7?
cryogenic liquid tank
What classifies cryogenic?
What are the liquids carried in an IMO type 7?
liquid (cryogenic) nitrogen, argon, or oxygen
What is the psi of tube module intermodal tanks
What are the types of non-bulk storage vessels?
- compressed gas cylinders
- cryogenic containers
What do steel utility drums usually contain?
flammable liquids, cleaning fluids, oil, other non-corrosive chemicals
What do polyethylene drums usually contain?
What do stainless steel drums usually hold?
highly aggressive materials (beer under extreme pressure)
What do cardboard drums contain?
solid materials such as soap flakes
What hazmat is usually found in bags?
pesticides with specific info
What has to be on the warning label of a pesticide bag?
- name of product
- statement of ingredients
- total amount of product in container
- manufacturer's name and address
- practical first aid treatment discription
- storage and disposal info
- keep out of reach of children
What is the difference between a hazard statement and precautionary statement?
- hazard: warns you of what could happen (causes eye irritation)
- precautionary: tells you something specific to do (keep out of reach of children)
What are signal words?
- (in order from most dangerous to least dangerous)
- danger - poison
What are carboys?
- transport and store corrosives and other types of chemicals
- made of glass, plastic, steel
- hold 5 - 15 gallons
- nitric, sulfuric and other strong acids are transported/stored in thick glass carboys
What is the pressure rating on an oxygen cylinder?
What the psi of large compressed gas cylinders found at fixed facilities?
5,000 psi or greater
What are the characteristics of the MC-306?
- flammable liquid tanker
- aka DOT-406 or gasoline tanker
- oval shaped
- carries between 6,000-10,000 gallons
- usually made of aluminum
- offloaded through valves at the bottom of the tank
What are the characteristics of the MC-307?
- round or horseshoe shaped
- psi below 40
- typically carries between 6,000-7,000 gallons
- used to transport flammable liquids, mild corrosives, poisons
What are the characteristics of the MC-312?
- corrosive tanker
- used for concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids and other corrosive substances
- smaller diameter than the 306 or 307
- several reinforcing rings around the tank
- operates at ~75 psi
- holds ~6,000 gallons
What are the characteristics of the MC-331?
- pressure cargo tanker
- carries materials like ammonia, propane, butane
- tanks has rounded ends
- operates at ~300 psi
What are the characteristics of the MC-338?
- cryogenic tanker
- tank within a tank
- relies on insulation to maintain low temp for cryogens
- box like structure containing the tank control valves typically attached to the rear of the tanker
What are the characteristics of the tube trailers?
- carry compressed gases such as hydrogen, oxygen, helium, and methane
- large volume cylinders operate at 3,000-5,000 psi
- one trailer can carry several different gases
- each cylinder has its own relief valve
What are dry bulk cargo tanks?
- carry powders, pellets, fertilizers, or grain
- generally v-shaped with rounded sides that funnel contents down