Skull and cranial vasculature
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What are the functions of the skull?
- shields the brain
- protects the organs of special sense
- protects the cranial parts of the respiratory and digestive systems
- serves as the attachment sites for the muscles of the head, neck and muscles of mastication
What is considered as the "Calavaria" of the skull?
The calavaria is also knows as the cranial vault or the neurocranium and it is considered as the globular part of the head.
True or False: The majority of the joints in the skull are non-synovial sutures
What are the 3 synovial joints found in the skull?
- 2 temporomandibular joints
- atlanto-occipital joint
What is the nasion?
It is the landmark that marks the union of the frontal bone and the paired nasal bones.
What bones make up the hard palate?
- palantine processes of the maxilla bones
- horizontal plate of the palantine bone
What makes up the pterygoid process?
The pterygoid process is made up of the lateral and medial pterygoid plates and the pterygoid fossa is in the middle
What structure sits on the sella turcica?
The pituitary gland sits in the hypophyseal fossa of the sphenoid
What are the 5 parts of the temporal bone?
- Squamous part
- tympanic part
- mastoid part
- petrous portion
- zygomatic portion
What does the condylar process articulate with and what joint does it form?
The condylar process articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone and forms that temporomandibular joint
What is the pterion?
- site of articulation of the:
- parietal bone
- temporal bone
- frontal bone
- sphenoid bone
What are the 3 divisions of the cranial fossa?
- Anterior cranial fossa
- middle cranial fossa
- posterior cranial fossa
What are the bones that are included in the anterior cranial fossa?
- ethmoid bone
- orbital portion of frontal bone
- lesser wings of the body of sphenoid
What are the bones included in the middle cranial fossa?
- body of the sphenoid and lesser wings
- mid-temporal bone
True or False: The spinal cord is covered by both the periosteal layer and the meningeal layer of the dura mater.
False: the spinal cord is only covered in the meningeal layer and not the periosteal layer
What are the attachments of the falx cerebri? What is its function?
- Anteriorly - frontal crest and crista galli
- posteriorly - blends with the tentorium cerebelli
Function: to separate the hemispheres of the brain
What are the attachments of the tentorium cerebelli? What is its function?
- medially: attaches to posterior and anterior clinoid processes
- laterally: attaches to petrous portion of the temporal bone
Function: separates the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellar hemispheres
What are the attachments of the falx cerebelli? What is its function?
Attachment: attached to the tentorium cerebelli and the internal occipital crest of the occipital bone
Function: separates the cerebellar hemispheres
What is the diaphragm sellae?
small projection of dura mater that covers the hypophyseal fossa of the sella turcica
What is the infundibulum of the skull?
It is a small hole in the diaphragm sellae that communicates the pituitary gland and the pituitary vessels
Trace the blood supply of the anterior cranial fossa dura mater on the right side, from the arch of the aorta.
Aortic arch / brachiocephalic trunk / right common carotid artery / right internal carotic artery / right opthalmic artery / anterior and posterior ethmoidal artery / anterior meningeal artery / dura of the anterior cranial fossa
Trace the blood supply of the middle cranial fossa dura and the vertex on the left side, from the arch of the aorta.
- Middle dura: aortic arch / left common carotid artery / left external carotid artery / left maxillary artery / left middle meningeal artery / posterior branch of left middle meningeal artery / middle of dura
- Vertex of dura: aortic arch / left common carotid artery / left external carotid artery / left maxillary artery / left middle meningeal artery / anterior branch of left middle meningeal artery / vertex of dura
Trace the blood supply of the posterior cranial fossa dura on the left side, from the arch of the aorta.
Aortic arch / left common carotid artery / left external carotid artery / ascending pharyngeal artery / posterior meningeal artery / dura of the posterior cranial fossa
What are the innervations of the meningeal projection of dura mater, the middle cranial fossa and the posterior cranial fossa?
- Falx cerebri – opthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve
- Tentorium cerebelli – opthalmic division of the trigeminal
- Medial Middle cranial fossa – maxillary division of trigeminal nerve
- Lateral middle cranial fossa – mandibular division of trigeminal nerve
- Posterior cranial fossa – C1-C3 meningeal branches and the vagus nerve
What arteries merge to form the basilar artery?
left and right vertebral arteries
Where do the anterior cerebral arteries branch from?
Left and right anterior cerebral arteries branch from the internal carotid arteries
What arteries branch directly from the basilar artery?
Left and right posterior cerebral arteries
What arteries do the posterior communicating arteries connect? Anterior communicating arteries?
- Posterior communicating arteries: connects the internal carotid arteries to the posterior cerebral arteries
- Anterior communicating artery: connects the right and left anterior cerebral arteries
What structures drain into the dural venous sinuses?
- Cerebral veins
- cerebellar veins
- veins of the brain stem
- diploic veins
- emissary veins
What structures drain into the confluence of sinuses?
- Inferior sagittal sinus
- straight sinus
- occipital sinus
- great cerebral vein
- superior sagittal sinus
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