Final Notes 4

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  1. Although the patterns of ciliary and flagellar movement are relatively complex, the basic motion underlying such patterns is a __ at appropriate points along its length.
    bending of the axoneme
  2. One of the earliest theories proposed to explain __ was that microtubules contract in the presence of __, causing the __ to bend toward the side of the __ where the microtubues have contracted.
    • axonemal bending
    • ATP
    • axoneme
    • ATP
    • axoneme
    • cilium
  3. Such a simple mechanism was effectively ruled out, however, by a classic series of studies carried out by __. What was his reasoning?
    • Peter Satir
    • that if microtubules contract, the doublets on one side of a bending cilium should be shorter and thicker than those of the opposite side
  4. Whn Satir examined sections through the tips of bending cilia, what did he see?
    that the microtubules located on the inside of the ciliary bend were found to project further into the ciliary tip than the microtubules on the opposite side of the bend
  5. Additional support for this conclusion was obtained by what?
    measuring the distance between adjacent radial spokes viewed in longitudinal section
  6. Becuase the __ are fixed to the __ walls, the distance between __should decrease if individual microtubules contract (get shorter). However, the distance between __ was found to be similar in __ and __ of the axoneme, indicating that individual microtubules do not __.
    • radial spokes
    • doublet
    • spokes 
    • radial spokes
    • straight and bent regions
    • contract
  7. There are two alternative models of how the kinetochore may generate a poleward force on its chromosome during anaphase
    What is the first?
    Microtubule motor proteins are part of the kinetochore and use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to pull the chromosome along its bound microtubules
  8. There are two alternative models of how the kinetochore may generate a poleward force on its chromosome during anaphase
    What is the second?
    Chromosome movement is driven by microtubule disassembly: as tubulin subunits dissociate, the kinetochore is obliged to slide poleward in order to maintain its binding to the walls of the microtubule
  9. What are the two types of movement involvedin chromosome separation during anaphase?

    When do they occur?
    Anaphase A involves the movement of chromosomes toward the spindle pole to which they are attached

    Anaphase B is the movement of the two spindle poles away from each other. 

  10. __ along microtubules allws the swift exchange of substances between the __ and __ at which the __ adjoins its target cell.
    • axonal transport
    • nerve cell
    • the synaptical terminal
    • nerve fiber
  11. Vesicles that will convey __ are manufactured by the __ and carried toward the __. __ at the __ is packaged into __, which return to __ in the cell body for __.
    • neurotransmitters
    • Golgi
    • synapse
    • surplus membrane
    • synaptic terminal
    • multivesicular bodies
    • lysosomes 
    • degradation
  12. __ move in both directions, catering to the __ demands of the cell.
    • mitochondria
    • energy
  13. Transport of the vesicles is __; that of the mitochondria is __. It is clear that a single microtubule can do what?
    • continuous
    • intermittent
    • support transport in both directions
  14. __ of vesicles along immobile microtubules
    - The kinesin molecules, attached to unidentified __ on the __, transport the vesicles fromm the __ to the __ of a stationary microtubule.
    Kinesin- motored transport

    • receptors
    • vesicle surface
    • minus to the plus end
  15. __ of microtubules
    - The kinesin molecuels bound to the glass surface move toward the __ of the microtubule. Because the kinesin molecules are __ onto the coverslip, the __ is transmitted to the microtubule, which then moves in the direction of ts __. __ is required for movement in both cases.
    • kinesi-catalyzed movement
    • plus end
    • immobilized
    • sliding force
    • minus end
    • ATP
  16. __ and __ transport vesicles and organelles in opposite directions along microtubules. 
    __ moves toward the plus end of the microtubule while __ moves toward the minus end.
    • kinesin
    • cytoplasmic dynein
    • kinesin
    • cytoplasmic dynein
Card Set:
Final Notes 4
2013-11-26 00:08:09
Cell Bio

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