AntiDepressants

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rdh2012
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249112
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AntiDepressants
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2013-11-25 22:08:13
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pharmacology
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HCP 112 Chapter 7
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  1. What do you call feelings of pessimism, worry, sadness, loss of concentration, slow mental process, and problems with eating and sleeping?
    DEPRESSION
  2. What drugs increase the blood serotonin and norepinephrine levels?
    ANTIDEPRESSANTS
  3. How should AntiDepressants be taken?
    Should NOT be taken "as needed". They have a delay onset of 10-20days
  4. What do you call the mood of extreme excitement,elation,and agitation?
    MANIA
  5. What do you call Mood swings with alternate episodes of depression and mania?
    Bipolar Disorder
  6. What do you call major depression with previous mania?
    Unipolar
  7. Which AntiDepressants block the reuptake of serotonin with little effect on norepinephrine and have a few side effects?
    SSRI (Selective Serotionin Reuptake Inhibitors)
  8. Which AntiDepressant prevents the reuptake of NE (norepinephrine) or serotonin?
    TCA (Tricyclic AntiDepressants)
  9. Which AntiDepressant inhibts the enzymes that breaks the catecholamines, alowing NE build in the synaspe?
    MAO Inhibitors (Mono Amine Oxidase Inhibitors)
  10. Prozac (Fluoxetine)
    PURPOSE?
    • SSRI
    • Unipolar (Major Depression ) and OCD
  11. What increases the blood concentration of Dilantin to toxic levels?
    PROZAC (Fluoxetine)
  12. What is given to women suffering from PMDD (Premenstural dysphoric disorder) to correct normal fluctuation?
    SARAFEM (fluoxetine)
  13. In what form does SARAFEM (fluoxetine) come?
    7-day pack of 10-20mg
  14. When should sarafem be taken?
    prior to menses (menstrual)
  15. What is Luvox (fluvoxamine) used for?
    ODC;Managing axiety
  16. What should be avoided  and the side effects when taking Luvox (fluxoamine) ?
    • AVOID Alcohol and Dilantin
    • S/E:Dry Mouth (take candy)
  17. What is the use of Paxil (paroxetine)?
    OCD;Panic Disorder
  18. What is reffered to as Prozac with a punch and chemicially related to Buspar?
    Effexor (venlafaxine)
  19. What are the side effects of Effexor (venlafaxine)?
    its increased BP, Accutane manic episodes and causes abnormal ejaculation or oragasm
  20. What is Zoloft (sertaline) used for?
    Depression and OCD
  21. When is the response  of Zoloft(sertaline)?
    within 8 weeks
  22. Which drug causes nausea at intial dose?
    Zoloft (sertaline)
  23. What is Celexa (citalopram) used for?
    OCD and other depression types
  24. What is used when the patient doesn't respond to SSRI?
    Celexa (Citalopram)
  25. What is Ludiomil (maprotiline) used for?
    depression with neurosis, and anxiety
  26. What are the side effects of Ludiomil (Maprotiline)?
    may cause seizures in patients with history of seizures
  27. What is Asendin ( amoxapine) used for?
    for mixed symptoms of anxiety and depression
  28. what are the side effects of Asendin (amoxapine)?
    Tremors and muscle rigidity
  29. Classification for Elavil (Amitrptyline)
    TCA (tricylic antidepressants)
  30. Classification for Norpramin (desipramine)
    TCA
  31. Classifications for Sinequan (doxepin)
    TCA
  32. Classification for Tifranil (imipramine)
    TCA
  33. Classification for Pamelor or Aventyl (nortripyline)
    TCA
  34. Classification for Vivactil (protriptyline)
    TCA
  35. Classification for Surmontil (trimipramine)
    TCA
  36. How should TCA be taken?
    • continuously for 6 to 12 months to reduce risk of relapse
    • Therapeutic course of 10-20 days
    • Taken at Bedtime and Avoid Sun
  37. What is used for children with Bed Wetting problems ?
    TCA
  38. What are the side effects of TCA?
    • postural hypotension ,
    • arrhythmia
  39. What is the second-line treatment for depression because of too many interactions with foods and drugs?
    MAO Inhibitors
  40. What should one do while taking MAO Inhibitors and starting a new drug?
    WASH OUT PERIOD of 2weeks
  41. What are the side effects of MAO Inhibitors?
    • Weight gain and edema
    • Should not be taken with food high in tyramine b/c of HPB
  42. What foods should be avoid while taking MAO?
    Cheese, pickled fish, broad beanpods, beer, herrings.
  43. Classification/ Use of Eldepryl (selegiline)
    • MAO Inhibitors 
    • for Parkison's Disease
  44. Classification for Nordil (phenylzine)
    MAO Inhibitors
  45. Classification for Parnate (tranylcypromine)
    MAO Inhibitors
  46. Classification for Marplan
    MAO Inhibitors
  47. What is the use of Desyrel (trazondone) & Serzone (nefazodone)?
    Prevents NE & serotonin reuptake?
  48. What are the side effects of Desyrel (trazondone) & Serzone (nefazodone)?
    • Priapism (Abnormal Penile Errection)
    • No cardiac and anticholergic effects
    • AVOID alcohol and prolonged exposure to Sunlight
  49. What drugs are not given to males?
    Desyrel (trazondone) & Serzone (nefazodone)?
  50. What does Wellbutrin or Zyban (Bupropion) do?
    causes dopamine uptake inhibitors without effects on NE,Serotonin or MAO
  51. What is used to aid Smoking Cession?
    WELLBUTRIN/ ZYPAN (Bupropion)
  52. How is Bupriopion (Wellbutrin/Zyban) Taken?
    • Takes 3-4 weeks to take effect 
    • should not be D/C abruptly
    • AVOID haloperidalsm MAOI And Trazadone
  53. What the side effects of  Bupriopion (Wellbutrin/Zyban)?
    • poor thinking
    • ,HA,
    • N/V
    • seizures
    • impotence
  54. What does Remeron (mirtapine) do?
    blocks serotonin receptors
  55. What do you call the combination  of Sleeplessness, Distractibility Elated mood Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities witha big potential for painful consequences likefinancial irresponsibility, sexual indiscretions,alcohol or drug abuse, or reckless driving Grandiose ideas Hyperactivity (socially, at work, sexually) Pressure to keep talking (emotional liability) Racing thoughts First episode occurs about age 30, with frequent
    MANIA
  56. What is the objective of of AntiManic Drugs?
    the objective of the therapy is to treat acute episodes and prevent subsequent attacks.
  57. What is the drug of choice for Mania?
    • Eskalith, Lithonate, Lithobid, Lithotabs
    • (lithium carbonate)
  58. What is the prophylaxis for unipolar and bipolar disorder?
    Eskalith, Lithonate, Lithobid, Lithotabs(lithium carbonate)
  59. How is Eskalith, Lithonate, Lithobid, Lithotabs(lithium carbonate) Taken?
    With antipychotics to prevents hostility and agitation
  60. What are the side effects of Eskalith, Lithonate, Lithobid, Lithotabs(lithium carbonate)?
    • GIT – bloating,
    • abdominal pain
    • ,bloody stools
    • Dermatologic – initiates psoriasis
    •  Hematologic – leukocytosis (increaseWBC)
    • Neuromuscular – tremors
    • teratogenic
  61. What is the use of Tegretol (carbamazepine)?
    • Anticonvulsant
    • Second-line of treatment to Lithium (for patients who do not respond to lithium)
  62. What are side effects of Tegretol (carbramazepine)?
    • ataxia,
    • clumsiness,
    • slurredspeech,
    • double vision,
    • drowsiness
  63. What is the use of Depakene (valproic acid)?
    • For patients with rapid mood changes
    •  used as anticonvulsant
  64. What are the warnings for Depakene (valproic acid) ?
    • can cause thrombocytopenia
    • should be taken with food or milk but not soda
  65. Whats another name for Antipyschotics?
    Neuroleptic Drugs
  66. What is the use of Antipsychotics?
    • 1. used for schizophrenia
    • 2. used to reduce hallucinations,delusions, ambivalence
    • 3. causes a steely gray appearance to skin
  67. What is  A mental disorder manifested by: Retreat from reality Delusions and Hallucinations Ambivalence Withdrawal Bizarre or regressive behavior ?
    Schizophernia
  68. What is an antipsychotic drug used as an antiemetic at low doses?
    • Compazine (prochlorperazine)
    • Sparine (promazine)
  69. Which antipsychotic can decrease WBC?
    Clozaril (clozapine)
  70. Classification for Prolixin (fluphenazine)?
    ANTIPYSCHOTIC
  71. What is Haldol (haloperidol)?
    • antimanic
    •  dopaminereceptor antagonist
  72. Classification for Loxitane (loxapine) ,Serentil(mesoridazine), Moban (molindone)
    Antipsychotic Drugs
  73. Which antipsychotic drug has no need for blood monitoring?
    Zyprexa (olanzapine)
  74. Which anti psychotic drug reduces involuntary muscle movement?
    Risperdal (risperdone)
  75. Which antipsychotic is used for dementia?
    Mellaril (thioridazine)
  76. Which anti-pyschotic has a ceiling effect/ should not exceed 800 mg/day?
    Mellaril (thioridazine) ;
  77. Classification for Navane (thiotixene)
    AntiPyschotic
  78. Classification for Stelazine (trifluoperazine)
    Anti Pyschotic
  79. What are the side effects of AntiPsychotics?
    • Anticholinergic – dry mouth blurred vision,
    • constipation
    • Postural hypotension
    • Tanning or steely gray appearance to the skin Hyperglycemia,
    • lack of menses,
    • lactation,gynecomastia,
    • increased sexual drives forwomen and decreased for men
    •  Bone marrow depression
    • Retinal deposits of melanin-causing blindness
  80. What causes a dopamine & cholleringeric imbalence causing dystonia (involuntary muscle contracting) , Akatnesia (motor restlessness, compulsion to pace), & Psuedoparkisonism?
    ANTIPSYCHOTICS
  81. What drugs are used to minimize involuntary muscle?
    • Benztropine (Cogentin) – immediate response but not complete
    • Antihistamines: Benadryl (diphenhydramine) Antivert (meclizine)
  82. What the criteria for diagnosis  for Panic Disorders?
    the criteria for the diagnosis are 3attacks in 3 weeks period
  83. How is a panic disorder caused?
    cause by locus ceruleus, a synapse atthe level of the pons and medulla,that determines the organism’s levelof arousal. The incoming message isinappropriately amplified to signal alife-threatening stress, the organismis aroused to defense or fight.
  84. What is the treatment of Panic Disorders?
    Combination of antiPanic drugs andbehavioral therapy Benzodiazepines - antianxiety Buspirone TCA – imipramine (Tofranil) Antihistamines: DPH, hydroxyzine Beta-Adrenergic Blockers – to slowdown the heart
  85. what is the most common self prescribed treatment for anxiety?
    ALCOHOL
  86. Patients taking antianxiety drugs should be monitored for?
    Depression
  87. How should the antianxeity drugs be combined?
    With behavioral therapy
  88. Classification for Inderal (propranolol)
    AntiPsychotic; beta blocker with all solid, liquid and injection form.
  89. Classification for Vistaril (hydroxyzine)
    Used for AntiAnxiety ;antihistamine; hypnotic
  90. Classification for Buspar (buspirone) –
    AntiAnxiety ; changesin sensory organs of smell,hearing, and taste
  91. Classification for Asendin (amoxapine)
    –antipsychotic
  92. Classification for Stelazine(trifluoperazine)
     & Equanil (meprobamate)
    ANTI PSYCHOTIC
  93. Which type of drug is used for antianxiety?
    Benzodiazepines
  94. Classification for Valium (diazepam)
    Benzodiazepine
  95. Classification for Restoril (temazepam)
    Benzodiazepine
  96. What is the treatment for Insomnia
    •  would be successful if drugs are given and causes identified
    • causes:
    • stress, pain, psychiatric, drug intake
  97. What do you call the feeling of feels sleepy during the daytimeproceeding immediately to REM along with cataplexy – short periods of muscleweakness associated with suddenemotions as joy, fear, or anger. sleep paralysis vivid hallucinations
    Narcolepsy
  98. How do you treat Narcolepsy?
    barbiturates and benzodiazepines
  99. patient aware ofsurroundings but relaxed (4-5% of sleep time)
    STAGE 1 NREM
  100. – patient unaware ofsurrounding but can easily be awaken (50% ofsleep time)
    STAGE 2 NREM
  101. increased automatic activity;dreaming; deep sleep (20-25% of sleep time); atotal of >90 minutes is important for completephysical rest
    STAGE 3 REM
  102. What is the Treatment of Sleep Disorders
    • Supportive or Behavioral Treatment:
    • Normalizing sleep schedule (bedtime andwaking time)
    • Increase PE during the day
    • Discontinue alcohol
    • Sleep from 7-8 hours/day
    • Reduce caffeine and nicotine consumption Eliminate drugs causing insomnia
  103. What is the Drug therapy for Sleep Disorders?
    Hypnotic Drugs
  104. What is the criteria for choosing hypnotic drugs?
    • Low addiction and suicide potential
    • Less EEG pattern 
    • not depress REM sleep
    • Minimum drug interaction
  105. What is perferred hypnotic?
    Benzodiazepines – preferred due to longduration and lower risk of fatal overdose;does not reduce REM, patient feel rested
  106. Side Effect of Benzodiazepines:
    • Habituation – they should be taken asneeded Dizziness,
    • confusion,
    • next-daydrowsiness,
    • impaired reflexesirritability,
    • aggressive behavior
    • amnesia
  107. What is the shortest acting hypnotic; 4hour duration
    Zaleplon (sonata)
  108. what works by depressing the sensory cortex, decreasing motor activity,altering cellular function producing drowsiness, sedation and hypnosis?
    Barbituates
  109. Why are barbiturates rarely used ?
    • abuse potential
    • tremors 
    • confusion
    • suicide potential
    • hangover
  110. Classification for Amobarbital (AMYTAL) (TRUTH SERUM)
    Barbituates
  111. CLassification for Butabarital ( Butisol)
    Barbituates
  112. Classification for Seconal (secobarbital)
    Barbituates
  113. What is the treatment for alcoholism?
    Antabuse(disulfiram) couple with vitamins likefolvite, thiamine, and/ormultivitamins

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