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- Who is Jean Piaget
- A child prodigy who had some early work with Binet. She helped the formulation theory
The Sensorimotor Period?
Begins with reflex and responses are connect to stimulation. "Out of sight, out of mind"....
What is Object Permanence?
When a child begins cognitive thinking... children under 6 months do not have object permanence
Describe the Pre-optional period (4-7 years old)
Egocentric type age (me myself and I) ... illogical age (2+2 = whatever parent or teacher states)
Describe Concrete Operations (7-13)
Rules dominate behavior and thinking ... Logical thought... Inflexibilty: "Black and white reasoning"...
Describe Formal Operations
It's Abstract Reasoning... Flexibility in thought Process... The emergence of personal introspection and moral reasoning
Desribe Piaget: A final comment
Deals with applications of mortality (divorce as example...) If someone expierence divorce during the preoptional phase = child blames themselves, tries to change themself because they think its thier fault...
During Concrete Phase = children know exactly what's going on
What did Erik Erikson do?
Provided life-span personality development... noted eight consecutive crisis thay emeger through life... and that we're always developing no matter what
Describe Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1 years..Erikson)
Trust: Faith and Predictability in environment... optimism about future
Mistrust: suspicious, fearful, and overly concerned about security
Descrube Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt (1-3 years... Erikson)
Autonomy: Gain control over bodily functions band coordination.
Shame and Doubt: Hostile Rejection of all controls... self-doubt abour ability to control body
Describe Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6 years... Erikson)
Initiative: Parental Support for trying new things leads to joy in exercising initiative and taking new challenges
Guilt: Feelings of guilt, unworthiness
Describe Industry vs. Inferiority (6-13 years... Erikson)
Industry: Learning new skills of personal care, produce work and independent living
Inferiority: Failure to learn these skills leads to - Feelings of mediocrity, Low self sufficiency
Describe Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence... Erikson)
Identity: integration of ones roles in life into a coherent pattern
Role Confusion: Failure to integrate these roles leads to a lack of personal identity and despair
The Origin and blueprint of life is?
In prenatal development, describe conception
The union of sperm and egg
In Prenatal Development, what is a Zygote?
The first cell EVA! ;)
In prenatal development, what's an Ovum?
Undifferentiated mass of cells, multicellular zygote... in this stage, cells are taken for in vitro fertilization (all cells the same at this stage)
In prenatal development, describe an Embryo
Differentiation as in cells begin to take unqiue characteristics (skin cells, organ cells... etc.)
Organogenesis happens in 1st trisemester and any disturbance that happens here is critical to the survival of the fetus.
In prenatal development, descrube a fetus
Fetus just deals with the growth, but some fine tuning occurs. Most important parts have been taken care of, fetus job to grow
In the Birth and the Neonate, describe the birth process
The head of the baby determines if natural birth is possible... Anything regarding the birth process is called perinatal period
In birth and the neonate, describe natural child birth as discussed in class
Used to be really dangerous = women would die from childbirth and infections could kill mom and child.
Medicalization of childbirth = childbirth being controlled in a specific setting like hospital. Also deals with child becoming sterile (developed from the process of the importance of washing hands)
In Birth and the Neonate, what are some common birth problems?
Anoxia is one example, which is the deprivation of oxygen from the baby
Describe some of the intricate parts of Human growth...
Cephalocaudial is growth from the head to tail(or bottom)... the head grows first then the bodies continues for a longer duratiin of time... Babies have a larger head in proportion to the body
Proximodistal dwals with the fetus growing from the inside of the body to the outward.
Describe Jean Piaget as a child prodigy
Submitted scholarly paper by 9... completed two phds by the age of 18-19
Describe Jean Piagets early work with Binet
Worked with Binet (they did not get along, Binet fired him)...
Thought that children did not know less than us as proposed by Binet but that they knew different than us, they saw the work different and communicated differently
Describe the Formulation Theory (Jean Piaget)
Belief that children understood and knew different based on their age
Cannot teach a child something they aren't ready to learn
Describe Jean Piagets emphasis on maturation and "readiness to learn"
Concluded that a certain level of maturation is needed to learn different concepts...
"Readiness to learn" = finally ready to learn concept
Describe the Verbal Scale and all of its components
General Information such as capitals of states or areas, boiling temperature, and shape of a ball...
Comprehension which is relegated to background and knowledge
Vocabulary is the biggest determinant of IQ and it's related to age
Arithmetic Reasoning deals with manipulating quantities
Digit span and similarities
What is the Performance Scale?
Usually involves no talking but deals with picture completion,
picture arrangement (order of events),
Block design (uses shapes/colors to build picture such as using red blocks to make a pic = tests spaitial ability),
Object Assembly, Coding, and Mazes
After using verbal and performance scale and take the number in each categories, what do you get?
Full scale IQ
Describe the Ego Defense Mechanism of Repression
Equates to amnesia if overused (the least amount of Mental illness)
Describe the Ego Defense Mechanism of Sublimation
Accepting substitute goals
Describe the Ego Defense Mechanism of fantasy
An escapr of reality... Video game, movie, etc
Describe the Ego Defense Mechanism of rationalization
Attempting to rationalize sonething wrong
Describe the Ego Defense Mechanism Projection
Where you blame others for your own shortcomings... Even positive attitudes. See others what you see in yourself, get upset
Describe the Ego Defense Mechanism of displacement
Taking out emotion onto something... getting bad grade and slamming on the desk or mad at life, hurt wife
Describe the Ego Defense Mechanism of Regression
Regressing Personality, appearance, or demeanor to gain something
Describe the Ego Defense Mechanism of Reaction Formation
Having a problem and removing it from self or society
What's the Humanistic Personality Theory
Any personality theory that asserts the fundamental goodness of people and their striving toward higher levels of functioning
What are the Big 5 dimensions of personality
Extroversion, agreableness, dependability, emotional stability, culture
Describe the Projective Test called Thematic Appreception Test (TAT)
A test composed of ambiguous pictures about which a person is asked to write complex story...
Usually black and white... cannot diagnose a person, only certain elements personality and thinking patterns...
CAT = Same test but for children
Describe the Projective Test Rorschach
A test composed of ambiguous ink blots; the way ppl interpret the blots is thought to reveal aspects of their personality
Describe the other projective test
Draw a person.. kids usually asked to draw a person or themselves; gives insight on how they see themselves or others
Define abnormal behavior
Behavior that is maladaptive life functioning or serious personal discomfort
Ddetail all the intricate parts of the term insane
Insane is a legal term that deals with responsibility of someone to be responsible or accountable for their actions
Just because someone is mentally ill does not mean they are insane
What's the difference between maladaptive behavior and the twrm insane?
Maladaptive behavior = mental health
Insane = legal responsibility
What is DSM-IV and explain all the components that it deals with
Diagnostic and statistical manual of each mental disorderb (4th Edition).
Containd clear definitions of each mental disorder (if not on list u dnt have disorder... specific criteria must be met)
American psychiatric association that classifies over 230 psychological disorders into 16 categories... no reference as to why
Leading cause of mental disorders?
What are mood disorders?
Disyurbances in mood or prolonged emotional state (sleep disturbances)
Describe the mood disorder, depression
Overwhelming feeling of sadness
Lack of interest in activities
Excess guilt or worthlessness
Treat it through medication
Describe the mood disorder, Mania
Characterized by euphoric states..
Extreme physical activity or excessive talkativeness
Disreactedness and sometimes grandiosity
Describe the mood disorder, bipolar
Periods of Mania and Depression in which they alternate
Can be referenced to Maniac-depression
Can be treated with lithium to correct chemical imbalances
What are the causes of mood disorders
Combination of genetics, chemical imbalances in the brain, psychological factors, and social factors
What is the relationship between mood disorders and suicide
People in deep depression do not commit because of low energy... those with bipolar disorder commit more because swinging in and out of depression
What are anxiety disorders
Disorders in which anxiety is a chwrqcteristic feature or the avoidance of anxiety seems to motivate abnormal behavior
List the three specific tyoes of phobias
Specific: intense paralyzing fear of some object or thing
Social: excessivr inappropriate fears connected with social situations or performances in front of other people
Agoraphobia: involves multiple intense fear of crowds, public places, and other situations that require seperation from a sourcr of security
What's a panic disorder and a panic attack
An anxiety disorder caused by reoccurring panic attacks
A panic attack is a sudden, unpredictable, and overwhelming experience od intense fear or terror without any reasonable cause... used to be anxiety attacks
What is a generalized anxiety disorder
An anxiety disorder characterized by prolonged vague but intense fear
What is obsessive compulsive disorder
An anxiety disorder in which a person driven to hunk disturbing thoughts (obsessions) and/or to perform senseless rituals (compulsions)
Obsessions refer to thought
Compulsions refer to behavior
What are the two conversion disorders?
Somatoform disorsers in which dramatic specific disability has no physical cause but instead seems related to psychological problems... More common in earlier centuries. Include a wide variety of symptoms such as blindness, deafness, or paralysis... Patient believes that they have a disability but they dont
Hypochondriasis: A Somatoform disorder in which a person intreperts insignificant symptoms as signs or serious illness in the absense of any organic evidence such illness
What are dissociative disorders
Disorders in which some aspect of the peesonality seems seperated from the rest
What is the dissociative disorder amnesia?
Rare disorder characterized by loss of memory dor last events without organic cause. Often results from intolerable experience
What is the dissociative disorder fugue
Disorser that involves flight from home and the assumotion of a new identity, with amensia for past identity and events
What is the dissociative identity Disorder
Disorder in which person appears to have distinct personalities that come out in different times
What are personality traits
Dimensions or characteristics in which people differ in distinctive ways
What ie the objective test 16pf
16 personality questionnaire created by Cattell that provides scores on the 16 trwits he identified
What is the objective test MMPI
Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory that includes 500 questions. This test tries to look at patterns in which u answer the questions.. most widely used objective personality test
Ability to tell if a person has paranoia or if normal
Describe MMPI-2 clinical scale, Hypochondriasis
Overly concerned with one little thing about there health exp = thinking ppl turn into cancer
Describe MMPI-2 clinical scale, Depression
Also measures the opposite of depression, extreme happiness
Describe MMPI-2 clinical scale, hysteria
High levels of anxiety
Describe MMPI-2 clinical scale, psychopathic deviation (PD)
Conformity gives u low score
Individuality gives u high score
Extremely high score = psychopathic killers
Describe MMPI-2 clinical scale, Masculinity-femininity
Describe MMPI-2 clinical scale, paranoia
Describe MMPI-2 clinical scale, psychasthenia
They need to perform an action (checking if all doors locked... always stepping on cracks)
Describe MMPI-2 clinical scale, schizophrenia
Assesses retreat from reality
High scores = away from reality
Some are really good artist but seem to stray from reality
Describe MMPI-2 clinical scale, hypomania
Overreactive, excited, impulsive
Measures activity levels
Describe MMPI-2 clinical scale, social introversion
High scores = introverted
Low scores = extroverted
Describe Shcizophrenic disorders
Severed disorder that = is characterized by a retreat from reality often involves disturbances of thought communication emotions including delusions and hallucinations and 1 percent of the population is affected
Describe the schizophrenic type of disorder, Disorganized schizophrenia "hebephernia"
Bizarre and childlike behavior is common
Describe the schizophrenic type of disorder, Catatonic schizophrenia
Disturbed motor activity is prominent, patient may remain motorless or in a posture position for a long time
Describe the schizophrenic type of disorder, Paranoid schizophrenia
Marked by extreme suspiciousness and complex bizarre delusions
Describe the schizophrenic type of disorder, undifferentiated schizophrenia
These are clear schizophrenic symptoms that do not meet the categories of other subtypes
Describe does the model of psychotherapy, historical way
Describe does the model of psychotherapy, Organic (neuroscience)
- Bipolar = lithium
- Surgery: prefrontal lobotomy (not performed as much anymore)
- ETC - Shocked therapy used for extreme depression
Describe does the model of psychotherapy, psychodynamic
Cause: underlying conflict
- Treatment: Conflict resolution
- Psychotherapy but really expensive
Describe does the model of psychotherapy, cognitive
Cause: faulty thinking
- Treatment: relearning
- Helps with phobias
Describe does the model of psychotherapy, ethical
- Treatment: responsibility
- Only one that works for substance abuse
Describe Intimacy vs Isolation (early adulthood)
Intimacy: In order to love another, one must have resolved all earlier crises
Isolation: Failure at intimacy brings a painful sense of loneliness + incompleteness
Describe Generality vs Stagnation (Middle adulthood)
Generality: experience meaning + joy in all major activities of life
Stagnation: Failure to remain productive + creative.. dull or resentful
Integrity vs Despair (late adulthood)
Integrity: acceptance of once life, a sense that it is complete and satisfactory... feel like life is complete
Despair: Despair at the loss of former roles and missed opportunities... fear approaching death