Organic compounds 1of4 (carbohydrates)

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  1. What is a carbon skeleton?
    • The "body" of an organic molecule that is made of chains of carbon atoms.
    • Carbon chains can form strait or branched chains and rings from covalent bonds.
    • The chain of carbon atoms in an organic molecule.
  2. What is a hydrocarbon?
    • A hydrogen atom bonded to a carbon atom.
    • A very common bond in organic molecules.
  3. What are functional groups?
    • Atoms or molecules that attach to the carbon skeleton of organic molecules.
    • Functional groups confer chemical properties to the molecule they are attached to.
  4. What are macromolecules?
    • Very large molecules formed by smaller ones, usually through dehydration synthesis. 
    • Macromolecules are usually polymers
    • Macromolecules are assembled in cells via dehydration synthesis
    • EX: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
  5. What are polymers?
    • Large molecules formed by the covalent bonding of MANY identical or similar small building-block molecules called monomers
    • poly = many, mer = parts
  6. What is a dimer?
    • Two monomers joined together
    • di = two, mer = parts
  7. What is a monomer?
    • Identical or similar small building-block molecules
    • mono = one, mer = parts
  8. What are isomers?
    • Molecules that have the same molecular structures (EX: C6H12O6), but with atoms joined differently along the carbon skeleton.
    • Each isomer has different chemical properties due to the difference in atom arrangement. (the H and 0, 
    • iso = equal or same, mer = parts
  9. What are carbohydrates? What % of your body mass are they?
    • Large organic compounds made of C (carbon), H (hydrogen), and O (oxygen).
    • Sugars are the building blocks of ALL carbohydrates.
    • Imperial formula: CH2O (2 hydrogens for every 1 carbon and oxygen) (a water molecule for every carbon)
    • Types of carbohydrates are sugars, nucleic acid, cellulite, glycogen, and starches. 
    • 2-3% of body mass
  10. What are the main purposes of carbohydrates in humans and animals?
    • Source of chemical energy for generating ATP needed to drive metabolic reactions. 
    • Few used to build structural materials. EX: deoxyribose used as building block for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
  11. What are the three basic groups of carbohydrates based on their sizes?
    Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides
  12. What are monosaccharides?
    • monosaccharides and disaccharides are simple sugars (sacchar = sugar)
    • The monomers of carbohydrates
    • Monosaccharides have 3-7 carbon atoms and are named depending on the amount of carbon atoms they have along with an "-OSE".
    • Main monosaccharides of the body are glucose, fructose, and galactose.
  13. How are monosaccharides categorized?
    • By the number of their carbon atoms
    • Monosaccharides have 3-7 carbon atoms and are named depending on the amount of carbon atoms they have along with an "-OSE".
    • triose = monosaccharide with three carbons
    • tetroses = four carbon
    • sugarspentoses = five carbon sugars
    • hexoses = six carbon sugars
    • heptoses = seven carbon sugars
  14. What are disaccharides?
    Two monosaccharides that for joined as a result of dehydration synthesis (or condensation "loss of water" / polymerization "the process of making a polymer")
  15. How are disaccharides formed?
    • Dehydration synthesis
    • H2O will be one of the products (dehydration synthesis), so the molecular formula will include all of the atoms of the two monosaccharides except one H2O molecule (H from 1 and OH from the other)
    • This process can be reversed with hydrolysis (hydrolyzed), the addition of water, to get the original reactants (monosaccharides).
  16. What are polysaccharides?
    • Carbohydrates composed of tens or hundreds of monosaccharides joined through dehydration synthesis.
    • Unlike simple sugars (mono- and disaccharides), usually insoluble in water (HYDROPHOBIC) and not sweet.
  17. How is ATP produced?
    Cells in the body break down glucose (c6h12o6) which is a hexose.
  18. What is glycogen?
    • Stored FORM OF carbohydrates in the body.
    • Main polysaccharide in the body.
    • Composed ENTIRELY of glucose monomers (simple sugar/monosaccharide) in branching chains.
    • Some glycogen is stored in the liver and skeletal muscles
  19. Why is some glycogen stored in the liver?
    If the concentration of glucose in your blood drops to low, glycogen can be broken down into glucose in the liver and released into the blood to be used by body cells, in body cells, to generate ATP.
  20. What are starches?
    • Polysaccharides formed from glucose by plants.
    • The major carbohydrates in our diet.
    • EX: food like potatoes and pasta
  21. What is cellulite?
    • Polysaccharides formed from glucose by plants that CANNOT be broken down by our stomach enzymes (digested).
    • Provides bulk to help in the elimination of feces (poop).
Card Set:
Organic compounds 1of4 (carbohydrates)
2013-12-08 18:48:26
Organic compounds 1of4 carbohydrates
Organic compounds 1of4 (carbohydrates)
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