Midterm 2

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pandaglasses
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249128
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Midterm 2
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2013-11-26 12:40:07
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anatomy
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anatomy 161a
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  1. amount of brain mass exceeding that related to an animal's total body mass


    one of the shared derived characters of vertebrates is associated with the development of the special senses
    encephalization
  2. vision, olfaction (sense of smell), and acoustico lateralis system (lateral line system and inner ear)
    special senses
  3. Lateral Line system
    composition:

    function:

    taxonomic distribution:

    origin of receptors:
    composition: pit organs + lateral line canals

    function: detects water currents/movements and is important for prey/predator detection, maintenance of position in a school (of fish)

    taxonomic distribution: occurs in fishes, larval amphibians, some adult amphibians (aquatic) but is lost during metamorphosis in terrestrial amphibians; absent in amniotes

    origin of receptors: develop from neurogenic placodes (lateral line placodes)
  4. sense of hearing
    sense of balance
    develops from neurogenic placodes (?)
    • Inner ear
    • otic placode
  5. receptor cells associated with lateral line system and hearing + equilibrium

    they're ___ that convert a mechanical force into an electric signal that is sent to the brain
    • hair cells
    • mechano-electric transducers
  6. mechano-electric transduction

    • left: resting
    • right: depolarized
  7. receptors in the lateral line system are___
    clusters of sensory cells (hair cells)-neuromasts
    • 1. sterocilia
    • 2. kinocilium
    • 3. afferent neuron (to CNS)
    • 4. efferent neuron (from CNS)

    • end of hair cells covered with cilia
    • basal end of hair cell synapses with neurons that transmit info to/from the central nervous system (CNS)
  8. In apical view there is an axis of ____ running through ____ dividing cells into two halves that are mirror images of each other
    • symmetry
    • kinocilium
  9. actin filaments covered by a plasma membrane; they lack microtubules and are not true cilia
    stereocilia
  10. true cilium  with a central axonome that has a 9+2 arrangement of microtubules
    kinocilium
  11. some neuromasts are free standing and occur as isolated structures in shallow pits in the skin (?)
    pit organs
    • 1. lateral line system
    • 2. pore
    • 3. scale
    • 4. neuromast
    • 5. nerve
    • 6. hair cell
    • 7. cilia
    • 8. cupula
    • 9. support cell
    • 10. nerve
  12. constantly able to remodel and storage asses via fine structure of bone

    composite nature and associated cells

    growth, healing, plasticity, growth structure->fexibility of morphology to satisfy support and minimal mass
    dyanamic equilibrium of skeleton/bone
  13. protein and mineral in bones
    • protein: collagen
    • mineral: hydroxyapatite (calcium phosphate)
  14. bone building cells-
    -interior of bone-
    bone eating cells-
    • osteoblasts
    • osteocytes
    • osteoclasts
  15. why remodel bone? (4 reasons)
    • 1.storage site (ca2+)
    • 2. healing
    • 3. bone growth (require building and remodeling)
    • 4. response to stress
  16. hydrozyapatite is _____ =signal for bone building
    piezoelectric- bending, makes weak electric field-> recruits bone building cells (stimulates the process)
  17. Gross Structures (2)
    • compact [composes middle of bone] -provides structural strength
    • cancellous (trabeculae) [composes heads of bone]
  18. Why Trabeculae (cancellous)?
    • 1. minimal mass (thin rods and plates)
    • 2. shock absorbance
  19. structures that serve as shock absorbers in the knee joint
    • cancellous bone
    • hyaline cartilage
  20. components of connective tissues (4)
    • muscles-exerts force
    • tendon-muscle to bone
    • ligament-bone to bone
    • joints (diarthrosis)-bone to bone
  21. components of diarthrosis
    • hyaline/articular cartilage-weeping lubrication
    • synovial membrane
    • synovial fluid (lube)
    • joint capsule
  22. muscles ___ to exert force, but in order to protract, an ____ must contract
    • contract
    • opposing muslce
  23. when water currents move the cupula, this causes ____________ and can excite or inhibit the hair cell
    the cilia to bend
  24. when the hair cell is:
    depolarized
    hyperpolarized
    neutral
    • 1. stereocilia bend towards the kinocilium->firing rate increases( high frequency of action potential)
    • 2. stereocilia bends away from kinocilium->firing rate decreases (low frequency of action potential)
    • 3. stereocilia moves parallel to kinocillium (perpendicular to axis of symmetry)->normal/resting

    *polarization of haired hair cells allows for maximum sensitivity to currents in opposite directions
  25. inner ear development
    otic placode (thickening of endoderm)-----invagination---->otic vesicle ----differentiation (into sacs and ducts)---> membranous/labyrinth (filled with endolymphs)
  26. membranous labyrinth is surrounded by a bony/cartilaginous capsule called___
    osseous labyrinth 

    endolymph>membranous labyrinth>perilymph>bony labyrinth (osseous labyrinth)
  27. components of the membranous labyrinth (4)
    • utricle
    • saccule
    • (both sense linear acceleration)

    • semicircular canal (senses angular acceleration; lined by vestibular epithelium)
    • cochlea
  28. orientations of semicircular canals
    • (2 vertical planes and 1 horizontal plane)
    • pitch
    • roll
    • yaw

    donought shaped
  29. semicircular canal contains
    ampulla
    • 1. cupula
    • 2. crista/septum
    • 3. ampullary crest
    • 4. hair cells
    • 5. hair-like extensions
    • 6. supporting cells
    • 7. nerve fibers
  30. How semicircular canals work (4)
  31. Outer Ear
    • extends from outside world to tympanic membrane
    • well developed in mammals(pina-cartilage and funnels sound to tympanic membrane) but not in other vertebrates
  32. Middle Ear
    • typanic membrane->inner ear
    • ear ossicles(malleus, incus, stapes)
    • boundary between inner and middle: footplate of stapes and oval window
    • six different organs (cochlea-organ associated with hearing)

    function: amplifies sound waves from air to fluid filled inner ear
  33. amplification of sound waves occurs in mammals 2 ways:
    • 1. lever system (1.3 in humans)
    • 2. pressure amplification(17x humans, 65 cats, 97-kangaroo rats) 

    overall amplification=lever system amplification x pressure amplification
  34. organ homologous to cochlea in lower vertebrates
    lagena

    spiral in therian mammals (cochlea)
    • 1. oval window
    • 2. scala vestibuli
    • 3. scala media (filled with endolymph)
    • 4. round window
    • 5. scala tympani 
    • 6. basilar membrane
    • 7. apex of cochela

    perilymphatic duct(scapula vestibuli + tympani)- filled with perilymph and currounds the cochlea duct
    • 1. scala vestibuli
    • 2. scala media
    • 3. basilar membrane
    • 4. scala tympani
    • 5. tectorial membrane
    • 6. organ of corti
  35. How does hearing work
    The stapes transmits pressure waves to the perilymph which is then passed along the scala vestibuli and tympani, before reaching the round window. The oval window bulges in and the round window bulges out, which causes the perilymph to rock back and forth until the energy of the pressure waves dissipate. This causes waves in the basilar membrane which sets up shears between the basilar and tectorial membranes, causing depolarization of the membrane of the hair cells, which stimulates the associated neuron to send information to the brain, resulting in hearing.
  36. Where are high frequency sounds and low frequency sounds detected
    • high frequency sounds: base of cochlea
    • low frequency sounds: apex of cochlea
  37. direction in which a muscle pulls when it contracts
    line of action
  38. how hard you have to push/pull something to make it move
    =Mass x Friction against which it is moved
    described in both terms of magnitude and direction
    force
  39. the distance over when force is applied (N*M or joules)
    work
  40. aligned with direction of motion

    perpendicular to the direction of motion

    side note: they're components that are perpendicular
    (Fe) effective =Ftotal (Cos⊘)

    (Fw) wasted
  41. multiple muscles with similar actions combined action
    Summation of force vectors
  42. Types of Levers(3)
    • 1. Type 1 (see saw)          Lo_____⋄___Li
    • 2. Type 2 (force multiplier) ⋄____Lo______Li
    • 3. Type 3 (nut cracker)     ⋄___Li_______Lo
  43. Torque/turning force/moment of the lever equation
    T= Li x F (Lin arm x Finput )

    can be increased by applying more force or by applying that force further from the fulcrum
  44. How to increase Fo
    • Fo=Fie (Li/Lo)
    • Increase by increasing Fie, length of Li , decreasing Lo
  45. Increase output velocity
    • Vo=Vie(Lo/Li)
    • longer out arms, shorter in arms
    • -can change how muscles insert on bone and change the dimensions of the lever
  46. ______ is adapted to extreme performances, has consequences-sacrificed other aspects of performances
    ______ "jack of all trade is must of none"
    • specialist
    • generalist
  47. Fo/Fi=Lie/Lo
    efficiency in which Fi is converted into Fo

    Lo/Lie- efficiency with which Vi is converted into Vo
    • Mechanical advantage
    • Velocity ratio
  48. adaptation for high speed running
    efficient long distance locomotion at moderate speeds
    environment where food is sparse and or seasonal
    cursorial locomotion
  49. why elongate by adding segments rather than just elongating the first 2?
    • summation of velocities
    • distal lightening

    ie. reduction/loss of clavicle->scapula free to rotate limb (contributes to multiplication of velocity)

    -adding vertical segments adds independent sets of muscles that contribute to the speed of retraction
  50. distal lightening (3)
    • 1. clavicle is reduced or absent 
    • -scapula is tall, narrow, and vertically oriented
    • 2. reduction in number of digits
    • -fashion to form a single pillar
    • -single pillar provides equal support with less mass
    • 3. joints are hinge like and only capable of fore-aft motion
    • -all muscles contribute to protraction & retraction
    • -muscles in 3rd and 4th segments are either reoriented or reduced 
    • -sacrifice hand function + certain ranges of motion

    • power stroke-retraction (stride)
    • recovery stroke-protraction
  51. elasticity
    • contraction of suspensory pushes down and back 
    • ground pushes animal up and forward
    • done with elastic recoil
  52. convergence of distal lightening and summation of forces in:
    artiodactly, perisodactly (horse), bird(ostrich)
    • artiodactyl-fusion of 2+3 metapodials
    • perisodactyl-enlargement of 3rd metapodial
    • bird(ostrich)-tibiotarsus
    •                   tarsometatarsus-fusion of 2,3,4                     metapodial
  53. 1.used to maintain speed; low force, high speed
    2.get it to start moving; power powerful, slower
    • 1. high gear muscle (ie. gluteals)
    • 2. low gear muscle (ie. IP series)
  54. ____ is an axis of locomotion, but not an axis of support (in fish)

    terrestrials-(?)
    fish-(?)
    secondary swimmers-(?)
    • vertebral column
    • zygapophyses
    • amphicoelous
    • acoelous
  55. High ____ imposes ____ due to high ____.
    _____ reduces friction cost of locomotion
    • viscosity
    • friction
    • density
    • streamlining
  56. components of performance swimming(3)
    • maneuverability
    • sustained swimming
    • acceleration

    *specialize in any one aspect, sacrifices other aspects of performance
    • 1. dorsal
    • 2. pectoral
    • 3. anal
    • 4. anus
    • 5. pelvic
    • 6. caudal peduncle
    • 6. caudal
  57. Constraints on locomotion and how to minimize them

    How can you minimize both?
    • Drag
    • 1. Pressure Drag-push+pull
    • -small leading and trailing edge>little fluid is push/pulled (will increase friction drag)
    • 2. Friction Drag-fluid moving along flanks(sides) of object
    • -lateral surface reduced (will increase pressure drag)

    • *fusiform body minimizes the sum of friction and pressure drag
    • -real fish are horizontally compressed-to swim (horizontal axis is shorter than vertical)
    • 1. laminar flow
    • 2. turbulent flow (greater friction)
  58. How Fish Swim
    • 1. propulsive element
    • 2. vertebral column
    • 3. transverse membrane
    • 4. force of fish movement 
    • 5. Fthrust =sum
    •     Flateral=cancels
  59. (transverse) the horizontal compression of fish and streamlined front end of fish ____ and _____
    • resistance to lateral displacement
    • reduces resistance to forward motion (smaller surface area)
  60. ___ contribute more to locomotion and why (2)
    • posterior elements
    • 1. effective force is greater
    • 2. greater acceleration
    • 1. Ideal
    • -enlarged medial fins
    • -deeper caudal peduncle
    • 2. sustained swimmers
    • -caudal fin sole propulsive element
    • -has scate on peduncle-like knife cutting through water-reduces turbulence 
    • 3. acceleration
    • 4. horizontally compressed
    • 5. sustained swimmers
    • -poor acceleration and poor maneuverability
    • 6. vertically compressed
    • 7. chondrichthys-vertebral column lateral
    • 8. reptiles (euryapsida) horizontal vertebral column
    • 9. mammals(cetacea)-vertical vertebral column 
    • -caudal fin is connective tissue
  61. Why fly?
    primary reasons(2)
    secondary reasons
    • 1. escape from predators
    • 2. food acquisition

    1. efficient locomotion (ie. seasonal migration)
  62. How did flight evolve?
    • gliding ancestors (birds +pterosaurs)
    • bipedal runners (birds)
  63. Classes that fly (3)
    • 1. Pterosaurs (Reptiles)-200myr-65myr
    • 2. Birds(Archosaurs-sarischian)-150-140myr
    • 3. Bats (mammals-chiroptera)-50-60myr
  64. structural adaptations to flight (2)
    • 1. forelimb modified to be a flight surface
    • -1st portion-humerus and radius/ulna
    • 2nd-wrist+hand
    • pterosaurs-5th
    • birds-2,3,4
    • bats-2,3,4,5
    • 2.modification of trunk
    • -center of gravity over shoulder joint
    • -terrestrials>over hind limbs
    • birds-furcula and corocoid (fusion of scapula to vertebrae)
    • bats-clavicle
    • pterosaurs-corocoid (fusion of scapula to vertebrae)
  65. Ways birds fly(2)
    • 1.gliding
    • -thicker leading edge
    • -convex upper surface
    • 2. flapping
  66. 2 ways to increase lift
    • 1. increase camber curvature
    • 2. increase angle of attack (tilt wing up)
  67. threshold angle where airflow over the upper surface changes from laminar to turbulent
    power stall angle
  68. lift is proportional to:
    AxV2
  69. Horizontal in power recovery stroke
    Horizontal during power
    • glide -generates lift during power recovery
    • drive
  70. ratio of length to average width
    • aspect ratio
    • high AR-long, narrow wings
    • Low AR-broad, short wings
    • -eliptical
    • -high speed flapping flight(long and narrow)
    • -high speed gliding(long and tapered)
    • -low speed gliding(long and broad)
  71. Bird: recovery and power stroke
    • recovery: supracoracoideous (humerus [dorsal], triosseum foramen[via tendons]) 
    • -passive
    • power: pectoralis (sternum + furcula> corocoid to humerus

    -trabeculae gives resistance to bending
  72. bats: power and recovery stroke
    • power (ventral)
    • recovery(dorsal)

    pectoralis meet at sheet of connective tissue that segregates left and right halves
  73. sabertooths characteristics
    • low corocoid process
    • increase gape
    • higher nucral crest
    • smaller zygomatic arch
    • dorsal facial rotation-cainines above tooth row
    • lower mastoid and higher occipital condyle
    • procumbent incisors
    • lateral angular process
    • temporalis gets lengthened
    • serrated posteriory
    • cainines lat. compr., large, ant +post lengthened
    • mandibula fossa shallower
  74. internal dirve cuasing maladaptive morphology
    orthogenesis
  75. eats only other organisms and often specializes for preying on large prey
    • hyper carnivores
    • -small population size
    • -their biology +speciation makes them more susceptible to extinction
  76. types of sabertooths
    • thylacosmilus (marsupials)
    • felids(carnivore)
    • nimravids(carnivora)
    • creodonta (hyaendontidae)

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