Cellular Respiration

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Author:
adriana321
ID:
249133
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Cellular Respiration
Updated:
2013-11-25 23:55:29
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Cellular Respiration Biology
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Cellular Respiration
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  1. Glycolysis
    • can happen w/o oxygen
    • cytosol
    • reactants- glucose, 2 ADP, 2 NAD+
    • products-2 pyruvate, 4 ATP 2NADH
  2. Lactic Acid Fermentation
    • anaerobic
    • animals/bacterium
    • muscle cells
    • reactants- 2 pyruvic acids, 2NADH
    • products- 2NAD+, 2 Lactic Acids
    • 2ADP + 2P ---> 2 ATP 
    • makes energy entirely from glycolysis
  3. Alcoholic Fermentation
    • anaerobic
    • plants/fungi
    • reactants- 2 pyruvic acids, 2 NADH
    • products- 2 ethanol, 2 CO2, 2 NAD+
    • ATP entirely from glycolysis
    • 2ADP + 2P --->2 ATP
  4. Glycolysis process
    • 1. glucose adds 2 phosphates(phosphorylates)
    • 2. 2ATP--> 2ADP 
    • 3. glucose splits into 2 carbon sugar w/ 1 phosphate
    • 4. NAD+ comes and oxidizes glucose that is split
    • 5. free phosphates added
    • 6. 2 ADP/carbon
    • 7. ADP + P= ATP = 4 ATP 
    • 8. leaves 2 (3 carbon molecules)= 2 pyruvate
    • 2 ATP net
    • BPG and PGAL
  5. Link/ Transition Process/ Grooming Phase
    • mitochondria matrix
    • 1. NAD+ oxidizes pyruvate forms NADH
    • 2. 1 carbon lost to form coenzyme-A from both pyruvates = 2 CO2
    • 3. 2 oxidized pyruvates= 2 acetyl-CoA=2 (2 carbon + coenzyme A)
    • Acetyl-CoA formed
    • 0 ATP produced 
    • 2CO2 released
    • 2 NADH
    • CO2 decarboxylates
  6. Krebs/Citric Acid Cycle
    • mitochondrial matrix
    • 1. 4 carbons waiting; acetyl-CoA joins
    • 6 carbon oxidized by NAD+---> NADH x 2
    • 2. 2 CO2 produced ---> 4 carbons left= ADP + P-->ATP 
    • 3. 4 C oxidize by NAD+ and FADH---> NADH and FADH2
    • 4. still 4C + acetyl CoA; looks like Acetyl-CoA
    • happens 2x; 1 for each pyruvate 
    • 2 ATP produced 
    • 4 CO2 produced
    • 6 NADH produced
    • 2 FADH2 produced
    • acetyl CoA(high potential energy)  to Coenzyme A --> citrate 
    • oxaloacetate(lowest potential energy) + acetyl CoA
  7. ETC/ oxidative phosphorylation
    • inner membrane(cristae)
    • protein in a row
    • e- from NADH pass through proteins
    • e- from FADH2 pass through 2 proteins
    • both pump out H+ ions into inter membrane space
    • protons return through ATP Synthase- makes 32 ATP from protons
    • 6 O2 molecules get e- and combine w/ H+ to form 6 H2O
    • made up from chemiosis and oxidative phosphorylation 
    • 34 ATP produced
    • 0 CO2 produced
    • 10 NADH used/oxidized
    • 2 FADH2 used
  8. Energy investment
    first 5 steps of glycolysis
  9. Energy yielding
    • last 5 steps in glycolysis
    • first step of fermentation
  10. Fermentation occurs...
    to regenerate NAD+ needed to keep glycolysis going
  11. # of ATP produced via electron transport phosph.(adding phosphate)
    • NADH: 30
    • FADH2: 4
    • Total: 34
  12. # of ATP produced via substrate level phosph.
    • 2- glycolysis
    • 2- krebs
    • total- 4

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