Respiratory system

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Author:
michaelirby98
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249134
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Respiratory system
Updated:
2013-11-29 23:11:48
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anatomy
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anatomy
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anatomy
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  1. Upper Respiratory Tract
    • Nose
    • Nasal cavity 
    • Paranasal Sinuses
    • Pharynx
    • And associated structure 
    • All part of the conducting system
  2. Lower Respiratory Tract
    Extends from the larynx to lungs
  3. Conducting Zone
    • Conducts air to and from the lungs 
    • Filters, warms & moistens air
    • Contains interconnected passageways 
    • Extends from nose to bronchioles
  4. Respiratory Zone
    • Gas exchange sites between air & blood
    • Tissues within the lungs: Respiratory bronchioles, Alveolar ducts & Alveoli/ Alveolar sacs
  5. Nose
    • External nares/Anterior Nasal aperture (Nostril) 
    • Nasal cavity
  6. Nasal Cavity
    • Contains ciliated mucosa (Conditioning air); cilia move mucus down to pharynx 
    • Divided by nasal septum
    • Receives tear drainage
    • Olfactory epithelium with receptors
  7. Nasal Conchae bone
    • Subdivides each side of nasal cavity into meatuses
    • Creates turbulence in air breathing in
  8. What is a Paranasal sinuses
    • Air spaces within the skull (bone cavities)
    • Condition air
    • Reduce weight; sound resonance 
    • Lined with mucous membrane 
    • Empty into nasal cavity
  9. Name the 4 paranasal sinuses
    • Frontal sinus
    • Ethmoidal sinus 
    • Sphenoidal sinus
    • Maxillary sinus
  10. Pharynx (Throat)
    • Between nasal cavity, oral cavity, and larynx 
    • Passageway for Air & Food
    • Protected by tonsils, mucosa 
    • 3 Divisions: Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynx
  11. Wall of Pharynx
    • Contains mucosa (ET & CT) lines lumen
    • Skeletal Muscle: External circular fibers & Internal longitudinal fibers 
    • Surrounded by adventitia (areolar CT)
  12. Nasopharynx
    • From Internal nares -> Soft Palate
    • Posterior to nasal cavity 
    • Includes pharyngeal tonsil, tubal tonsils, opening to auditory tube
  13. Air only/ Pseudostratified ciliated columnar ET

    Soft palate prevents food/water from entering nasopharynx during swallowing
    Nasopharynx
  14. Oropharynx
    • Soft Palate -> Base of tongue 
    • Bordered by muscular arches 
    • Posterior to oral cavity
  15. Includes palatine & lingual tonsils Shared

    passageway/ Stratified squamous ET
    Oropharynx
  16. Laryngopharynx
    • Base of toungue -> Opening to esophagus 
    • Continuous with larynx & esophagus
  17. Shared passageway with stratified squamous E.T
    Laryngopharynx
  18. Larynx
    • "Voice Box"
    • Air passageways  
    • Sound production
    • Supported by multiple cartilages 
    • (Epiglottis, Thyroid cartilage, Cricoid cartilage)

    Lower Respiratory Tract/ Conducting  
  19. Epiglottis
    • Covers glottis (larynx opening) during swallowing
    • Attached to thyroid ligament 

    Elastic cartilage / Larynx 
  20. Thyroid cartilage
    • Anterior and lateral walls of larynx
    • 2 fused plates of hyaline cartilage 
    • Has laryngeal prominence 

    Larynx / Hyaline Cartilage 
  21. Cricoid cartilage
    • Ring-shapped 
    • Most inferior cartilage
    • Connects to the trachea


    Larynx / Hyaline Cartilage 
  22. Arytenoid Cartilage
    • Synovial joint
    • Influences vocal cord position/tension 

    Hyaline Cartilage/ Larynx 
  23. Corniculate Cartilage
    • Support Arytenoid 
    • Superiorly attach to Arytenoid

    Hyaline cartilage / Larynx 
  24. Cuneiform Cartilage
    • Supports vocal cords 
    • Supported with the Aryepiglottic fold

    Hyaline cartilage / Larynx 
  25. Thyrohyoid Membrane
    • Ligament of the larynx
    • Attaches  the superior border of the thyroid cartilage to the hyoid bone
  26. Laryngeal Prominence
    • "Adams apple"
    • Anterior projection of the thyroid cartilage
  27. Cricothyroid Ligament
    • Dense Regular Connective tissue 
    • Attaches cricoid cartilage to the inferior thyroid cartilage
  28. Gas Conditioning
    • When inhaled gases pass through conducting airways and are "conditioned" for gas exchange in lungs 
    • Warmed to body temp
    • Humidified 
    • Cleansed of particulate matter 
  29. Olfaction
    • Superior region of nasal cavity 
    • Covered in Olfactory epithelium 
    • Contain receptors for sense of smell
  30. Intrinsic Muscles
    • Alters vocal cords or rima glottidis 
    • Between laryngeal cartilages
  31. Extrinsic Muscles
    • Move and stabilize larynx 
    • Extend from laryngeal cartilages to other structures
  32. Mucosa in larynx forms
    • 2 pairs of folds
    • (upper/false & lower/true vocal cords)
  33. Vocal Ligaments + Mucosa
    • Vocal folds 
    • AKA "True vocal cords"
  34. Vestibular ligaments + Mucosa
    • Vestibular folds
    • AKA "false vocal cords"
    • No sound production
    • Protection only.
  35. Cilia in lower respiratory tract
    • Moves mucosa up towards pharynx
    • *Eventually swallowed*
  36. Trachea
    • Conducts air AKA "Windpipe"
    • Extends from larynx to primary bronchi 
    • Runs through mediastinum 
    • Anterior to esophagus 
    • Bifurcates at level of sternal angel (T5)
    • Contains 15-20 tracheal cartilages, anular ligaments, and trachealis mucles
    • Lower Respiratory Tract 
  37. Mucosa lining trachea wall is
    Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
  38. Tracheal Cartilages
    • C-shaped 
    • Supports trachea 
    • Hyaline cartilage C.T.
    • Connected by anular ligaments
  39. Anular Ligaments
    • Elastic connective tissue sheets
    • Connects tracheal cartilages
  40. Trachealis Muscle (smooth)
    • Bound open ends of the tracheal cartilages (C-Shape)
    • Distends and bulges into lumen of trachea allowing larger materials to be swallowed. 
    • Contracts during coughing facilitating rapid expulsion of air
  41. Fibromuscular Membrane forms
    • The posterior wall of trachea 
    • Made from the trachealis muscle and Elastic C.T.
  42. Bronchial Tree
    • Branching passageways conducting air 
    • Primary -> Secondary -> Tertiary bronchi
  43. Right Primary Bronchus
    • More vertical, shorter & wider
    • Main area where aspirated objects enter & lodge
  44. The final pathway of of conducting system
    Terminal Bronchioles 

    Then branch into respiratory bronchioles
  45. Alveoli
    • Site of most gas exchange 
    • Out-pouching
    • Source of spongy texture 
    • 2 types: Type I and Type II
    • Simple squamous E.T. supported by thing elastic basement membrane 
  46. Type I alveolar cells (Squamous alveolar cell)
    • Main site of gas exchange
    • Simple Squamous Epithelial Cells
  47. Type II alveolar cell (septal cells)
    • Smaller in population
    • Almost cuboidal shaped
    • Secret Pulmonary Surfactant

  48. Pulmonary Surfactant
    • A fluid composed of lipids and proteins 
    • Reduces surface tension and prevent collapse of the alveoli
  49. Alveolar Macrophages (dust cells)
    • Engulf any microorganisms or particulate material that has reached alveoli
    • Free: Migratory cells that continually crawl within alveoli 
    • Fixed: Remain within connective tissue of the alveolar walls
  50. Fibroblast of alveoli
    Produce reticular and elastic fibers
  51. Respiratory Membrane
    • A thin wall between alveolar lumen and the blood.
    • Site where oxygen and C02 passes from alveoli to blood stream and vice versa
  52. Paired spongy organs
    Lungs
  53. Lungs
    • Contain bronchial tree and Respiratory zone
    • Within pleural cavities 
    • Visceral Pleura- Surface of lungs
    • Parietal Pleura- Attached to wall
  54. Apex of Lungs
    • Superior Extension
    • Above clavicle 
    • TOP
  55. Base of Lungs
    • Inferior 
    • Rest of Diaphragm
  56. Hilum of Lungs
    Vertical slit on mediastinal surface
  57. Where the lungs contact thoracic wall
    Costal Surface of Lungs
  58. Recess on left side of lung
    Cardiac Notch of Lungs
  59. Fossa on medial surface of left lung
    Cardiac Impression of Lungs
  60. Primary Bronchi enter each ___
    Lung
  61. Secondary bronchi enter each ___
    Lobe
  62. Tertiary bronchi enter ____
    Bronchopulmonary Segments
  63. Each bronchopulmonary segment includes:
    • Tertiary bronchus 
    • Pulmonary artery
    • Pulmonary vein
  64. Smallest visible division of the lungs
    Lobules
  65. Lobules contain _____
    • Bronchiole and its Branches
    • Artery
    • Vein
    • Lymphatic vessel 

    Wrapped in elastic C.T.
  66. Boyle's Law
    Depends on gas moving from high pressure to low pressure.

    Atmospheric/Intrapulmonary Pressure
  67. Ventilation
    • The mechanics of moving air in & out 
    • Boyle's Law
  68. Quiet Inspiration
    • Diaphragm & ext intercostals contract
    • Size of thoracic cavity increases 
    • Pressure decreases
    • Air flows in
  69. Quite Expiration
    • Nerve impulses cease, diaphragm & ext intercostal relax
    • Size of thoracic cavity decreases
    • Pressure increases
    • Gases flow out
  70. Respiratory Center
    • Neucli in medulla oblongata control breathing 
    • Rate & depth (rhythm) of breathing 
    • Ventral and Dorsal Respiratory Gropus
  71. Ventral Respiratory Group
    • Establishes rhythm of breathing 
    • Functions only during FORCED breathing 
    • During quiet breathing, the VRG is inactive
  72. Dorsal Respiratory Group
    • Modifies rhythm of breathing
    • The inspiratory center that controls inhalation
  73. Pontine Respiratory group
    • Stimulated by nuclei in the Pons 
    • Interacts with VRG to smooth resp pattern during exercise and sleep

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