Exercise Physio Lecture 2

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249147
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Exercise Physio Lecture 2
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2013-11-26 02:04:42
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NEED STUDY GUIDE 4
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  1. Describe the responses of expired ventilation rate (VE), oxygen uptake rate (VO2) and carbon dioxide production rate (VCO2) when going from rest to submaximal and maximal workloads
  2. How does training affect these responses?
  3. What causes the breakaway in VE and VCO2 at anaerobic threshold?
  4. What are the primary muscle fiber types and energy sources used prior to and after anaerobic threshold?
  5. Why does a trained individual have a lower VE, VO2, and VCO2 than an untrained individual during submaximal exercise?
  6. Why does a trained individual have a higher VE, VO2, and VCO2 than an untrained individual during maximal exercise?
  7. How does the depth of tidal volume and rate of breathing differ between a trained and untrained person during exercise?
  8. Why does this difference exist?
  9. How is alveolar ventilation rate for a given expired ventilation rate affected by this difference?
  10. What is meant by the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) and carbon dioxide (PCO2) and how do they relate to the concept of diffusion gradient?
  11. What factors affect PO2 and PCO2?
  12. What is primarily responsible for the drop in PO2 and increase in PCO2 when gong from atmospheric air to air in the alveoli?
  13. Know and understand how PO2 and PCO2 change in arterial and venous blood.
  14. When are PO2 and PCO2 the highest and lowest in the blood?
  15. How much time is available for gas exchange in the alveoli and muscle capillaries during rest and exercise?
  16. Is the time available for gas exchange usually a limiting factor in performance? Explain
  17. What factors affect pulmonary diffusion capacity?
  18. Does pulmonary diffusion capacity increase when going from rest to submaximal and maximal workloads? Why?
  19. Why do trained persons have a greater pulmonary diffusion capacity at rest as well as during submaximal and maximal workloads?
  20. What factors determine the total amount of oxygen in the blood?
  21. What is the primary way that oxygen is transported in the blood?
  22. What is the main or primary factor determining the amount of hemoglobin saturated with the oxygen?
  23. How does the sigmoidal shape of the hemoglobin oxygen dissociation curve affect oxygen loading in the lungs and oxygen availability to the muscle tissue?
  24. What is meant by the statement that hemoglobin is an allosteric protein?
  25. What does the concept of cooperativity mean in regards to hemoglobin and the binding to and the unloading of oxygen from hemoglobin?
  26. What causes the hemoglobin oxygen dissociation curve to shift to the right?
  27. How does the shift of the hemoglobin oxygen dissociation curve to the right affect the loading of hemoglobin with oxygen in the lung capillaries and the unloading of oxygen from hemoglobin in the muscle tissue capillaries?
  28. How is the availability of oxygen to muscle tissue affected by the partial pressure of oxygen, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and the hydrogen ion concentration in the muscle tissue and muscle tissue capillaries?
  29. During acute high altitude exposure, maximal oxygen uptake rate decrease by about 10% for every 1,500 meter of elevation. What is the first major adaptation to high altitude that occurs after about 48 hours of high altitude exposure, which significantly increase oxygen availability to the muscle tissue?
  30. What is epogen?
  31. How does it affect red blood cell and hemoglobin concentrations, the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood, and viscosity of the blood?
  32. With regards to circulatory responses, know and understand how the pressure gradient and peripheral resistance affect cardiac output.
  33. Know and understand how the pressure gradient changes in the arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins.
  34. What is the best overall indicator of the pressure gradient or the driving force of the blood?
  35. Know and understand what factors enhance the venous return of blood.
  36. Know and understand what factors affect peripheral resistance.
  37. How can cardiac output be increase or decreased?
  38. How can peripheral resistance be increase or decreased?
  39. During progressive, incremental exercise, how does the distribution of blood flow to the working muscles and other inactive areas of the body change?
  40. During progressive, incremental exercise, what happens to overall peripheral resistance?
  41. Know and understand how oxygen extraction (arterial - venous oxygen diffference or A - VO2 difference) , stroke volume, heart rate, and the oxyen carrying capacity of the blood affect an individual's ability to meet the oxygen demand of the body.
  42. What factors affect the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood?
  43. Know and understand in detail the Fick equation: oxygen uptake rate is equal to cardiac output (stroke volume x heart rate) X oxygen extraction (arterial venous oxygen difference).
  44. How does acute exercise and long-term training affect the components of the Fick equation?
  45. When going from rest on up through submaximal and maximal workloads, know and understand how blood pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate, oxygen extraction, expired ventilation rate, oxygen uptake rate, lactic acid production rate and muscle blood flow change.
  46. How do stroke volume and heart rate affect cardiac output?
  47. Know and understand how end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume affect stroke volume.
  48. Know and understand what factors affect end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes
  49. How does training affect these factors affect end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes?
  50. Know and understand how cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate, oxygen extraction, expired ventilation rate, oxygen uptake rate, lactic acid production rate and muscle blood flow of a trained person differ from an untrained person at rest as well as during submaximal and maximal exercise.
  51. Know and understand how blood volume, absolute and relative hemoglobin concentrations, capillary and mitochondrial density in muscle tissue, ventricular volume and wall thickness, myoglobin concentration, oxygen enzyme concentrations, and myocardial efficiency of a trained person differs from an untrained person.
  52. Why does endurance training potentially result in bradycardia?
  53. In terms of training specificity, know and understand how endurance and strength training affects ventricular volume and wall thickness.
  54. Know and understand what increases cerebral cortex activity (anticipation), kinesthetic feedback, chemoreceptor responses (PO2, PCO2, and pH), catecholamine release, and temperature affect ventilation, heart rate, stroke volume, and the circulatory blood vessels (i.e., vasoconstriction versus vasodialation).
  55. Know and understand how altitude, oxygen enrichment, smoking, carbon monoxide exposure, blood doping, and ingestion of epogen (EPO) affects the oxygen carrying of the blood and other cardiorespiratory responses
  56. Know and understand how carbon dioxide is transported in blood. What is the principle (main) method by which carbon dioxide is eliminated from the muscle tissue? Why?
  57. How do the PO2 and PCO2 in the alveoli and alveolar capillaries as well as other factors affecting the pulmonary diffusion capacity affect the removal of carbon dioxide from the blood in the lungs?
  58. How is lactic acid buffered in the blood?
  59. The buffering of lactic acid ultimately results in the formation of what substances or products?
  60. Know and understand the physiological concept of anaerobic threshold.
  61. What causes the breakaway in expired ventilation rate, carbon dioxide production rate, and lactic acid production rate at anaerobic threshold?
  62. What are the primary muscle fiber types and energy sources used prior to and after anaerobic threshold?
  63. Know and understand how knowledge regarding anaerobic threshold can be used in fitness appraisal, endurance training, and endurance performance
  64. How can a person perceptually detect anaerobic threshold?
  65. Why does a trained person have a higher anaerobic threshold than an untrained person?

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