TAP Reading Comprehension: PART 2

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shockwave
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TAP Reading Comprehension: PART 2
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2014-01-11 21:37:24
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TAP Reading Comprehension Vocabulary Language
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TAP Reading Comprehension: Vocabulary & Language
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  1. Writers use metaphors for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
     To be humorous.
     To make a qualified comparison between one thing and another.
     To make an equivalency between one thing and another to highlight how they're similar.
     To force the reader to consider the character/object/imagery that is the subject of the metaphor from a new angle.
     To make the writing more interesting and effective.
    A 'qualified comparison' is a trait of the simile, not the metaphor. While metaphors are not always used to humorous effect, they certainly can be. The only danger is when you mix your metaphors unintentionally to humorous effect.
  2. Define synecdoche. 
    • A part of something is used to refer to the whole entity, or a whole entity is used to refer to part of something.
    •  
  3. Define Metonymy 
    • When a thing refers to something else that it's closely associated with, but unlike synecdoche, the part does not have to refer to the whole, or vice versa.
    • Remember when we talked about how 'wheels' was synecdoche for 'car?' Here's the metonym version of the same:
    • 'It was the town's mechanic, not the rich lawyer, who had the nicest ride.'
    • 'Ride' here is a metonym for 'car' because riding is something you do in an automobile, but the 'ride' is not a part of the automobile and therefore does not qualify as synecdoche.
  4. Define paradox
    • A contradiction that at first glance appears to make sense, but which, upon further reflection, is seen as illogical.
    • One example of a paradox is from George Orwell's Animal Farm (1945): 'All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.'
  5. Define equivocation
    The misleading use of a word or a string of words, often using alternate meanings.


    • The use of ambiguous language to conceal the truth or to avoid committing oneself; prevarication.
    • "I say this without equivocation".

    • "to call by the same name" is classified as an informal logical fallacy. It is the misleading use of a term with more than one meaning or sense (by glossing over which meaning is intended at a particular time). It generally occur with
    • polysemic words (words with multiple meanings).

    • Equivocations usually occur as strings of sentences that, like a game of telephone, get further and further from the truth of the original statement.
    • One type of equivocation is referred to as 'better than nothing,' which relies on the shifting meaning of the word nothing. Here is an example:
    • Cabbage is better than nothing.
    • Nothing is better than ice cream.
    • Therefore, cabbage is better than ice cream.
  6. The misleading use of a word or a string of words, often using alternate meanings is called a ______.

    equivocation
    paradox
    cliché
    catch-22
    literary device
    equivocation
  7. Similes Vs. Metaphors 
    • SIMILES COMPARE. USE LIKE OR AS.
    • METAPHORE USE IS. 
  8. A_________ is different from a ________ because it doesn't put two objects side-by-side to compare them.
    A metaphor is different from a simile because it doesn't put two objects side-by-side to compare them. 

    Instead a metaphor equates one thing with another.
  9. ______ _______ are extended comparisons, originating back to the Ancient Greeks and early epic poetry. 
     
    Epic similes are extended comparisons, originating back to the Ancient Greeks and early epic poetry.
  10. T OR F
    Similes can sometimes be limiting because they can't convey everything a writer wants them to convey or are clichés that have been used many times before.

    TRUE
  11. What Is Apostrophe?

    • A figure of speech, where a character addresses either an object, idea or imaginary person as if they were there in the room with them or as if they were a person.
    • Not to be confused with the punctuation mark used in contractions (like 'don't') and to show possession (like 'the student's grade').
  12. ____________________ is a literary device where writers describe non-human animals, objects and ideas using human characteristics.

    For example, 'The stars danced in the sky' describing them as dancing.
    Personification
  13. ________ ________ is the use of language to express the opposite sentiment than what is expected.
    • Verbal irony 
    • The most recognizable form of verbal irony is sarcasm, where the speaker says the opposite of what they mean, often for comedic effect.
  14. _________ _______ is when the exact opposite of what you expect to happen happens. This type of  irony, like verbal irony, is powered by the incongruity between the expectation and the actual outcome.
    • Situational irony 
    • Cartoons often use situational irony to get laughs, from a cat chasing a dog (instead of a dog chasing a cat) to a talking cartoon baby with a British accent who is smarter and more devious than any of the adult characters.
  15. __________ _____is when a playwright or a novelist creates an ironic situation that only the viewer or reader knows about.
    • Dramatic irony 
    • Dramatic irony is said to be a type of situational irony that the characters aren't in on yet, which can create tension - the killer hiding somewhere we only know about - or humor - a comedy based upon mistaken identity.
  16. ________ is a literary device that uses the difference between expectation and result as a way to make people laugh, cry and think.
    • Irony
    • It is a literary device that relies on the difference between expectation and outcome.
  17. The presentation of something as being smaller, worse, or less important than it actually is.

    Or the use of minimized language to call attention to what is usually quite obvious.
    UNDERSTATEMENT
  18. ____________  the use of minimized language to call attention to what is usually quite obvious.

    Or the presentation of something as being smaller, worse, or less important than it actually is.
    • Understatement
    • Exaggeration overstates a situation - 'I could eat a horse!' when you are hungry - while understatement underplays the situation - 'Tis' a scratch', when the knight loses all of his limbs.
  19. What Are Litotes?

    • Litotes are a specific type of understatement where a negative term or terms are used to create emphasis.
    • a figure of speech in which understatement 
    • is employed for rhetorical effect, principally via double negatives.

    • EX: rather than saying that something is attractive (or even very attractive), one might merely say it is "not unattractive".
    •  
  20. _________ is an extreme type of understatement where the speaker says the opposite of what they mean. 

    Sarcasm
  21. __________are used in place of words and phrases that are commonly thought to be too offensive or taboo to talk about directly.
    It can serve as a type of literary device, helping authors create richer characters and more interesting language and plots.
    Euphemisms
  22. _________ can range from metaphors and other comparisons - like 'a raisin in the sun' - to story elements like setting and characters - such as caged birds representing the feeling of being confined by gender roles.
    symbolism 
  23. __________ is the use of objects, people or colors to represent larger ideas, adding a layer of deeper meaning to a work of art.
    symbolism 
  24. _________ is a literary device that relies on the difference between expectation and outcome.
    IRONY.
  25. NAME THE 3 TYPE OF IRONY.
    • VERBAL
    • SITUATION
    • DRAMATIC
  26. ______ ______is the use of language to express the opposite sentiment than what is expected.
    Verbal irony is the use of language to express the opposite sentiment than what is expected.

    • STATE OPPOSITE OF WHAT YOU FEEL. 
    • The most recognizable form of verbal irony is sarcasm, where the speaker says the opposite of what they mean, often for comedic effect.

    Sometimes my dad will serve himself dessert and tell the rest of the family that it is 'disgusting' while simultaneously shoveling it in his mouth. He uses sarcasm, saying it is disgusting when he's clearly enjoying it, to get us to laugh.
  27. _______ _______ is when the exact opposite of what you expect to happen happens.
    Situational irony is when the exact opposite of what you expect to happen happens.

    Expect one thing to happen and then the opposite occurs. 

    • Situational irony, like verbal irony, is powered by the incongruity between the expectation and the actual outcome.
    • Cartoons often use situational irony to get laughs, from a cat chasing a dog (instead of a dog chasing a cat) to a talking cartoon baby with a British accent who is smarter and more devious than any of the adult characters.
  28. ________ _______ is when a playwright or a novelist creates an ironic situation that only the viewer or reader knows about.
    Dramatic irony is when a playwright or a novelist creates an ironic situation that only the viewer or reader knows about.

    • ONLY THE READER KNOWS. 
    • Dramatic irony is said to be a type of situational irony that the characters aren't in on yet, which can create tension - the killer hiding somewhere we only know about - or humor - a comedy based upon mistaken identity.
  29. What Is Consonance? 
    GIVE EXAMPLE.

    Consonance is the repetition of consonant sounds, often at the beginning of words.

    Tongue twisters are the most obvious use of consonance.

    'Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.'
  30. What Is Assonance?

    Assonance is a literary device using repeated vowel sounds. Because repeated vowel sounds can create rhymes, assonance is often found in poetry.
  31. T OR F
    Repetition can reoccur at the beginning, middle or end of the lines of verse.
    TRUE
  32. What Is Understatement?

    Use of minimized language to call attention to what is usually quite obvious.

    Think of understatement as the opposite of exaggeration.

    MONTY PYTHON " TIS' JUST A SCRATCH." WHEN HE LOST HIS ARM.
  33. The most extreme form of understatement is ________, which is 'when the speaker says the exact opposite of what they mean, often for comedic effect'.
    Sarcasm

    I HATE STAR WARS, WHEN THE HOUSE IS COVERED IN IT.
  34. What Are Litotes?

    Litotes are a specific type of understatement where instead of expressing something in a straightforward and often positive way, a negative term or terms are used to create emphasis.

    Instead of the affirmative sentence, 'My friend Briana is funny,' imagine if I said, 'My friend Briana is not unfunny.' The first expresses the sentiment in a simple way, so there is no denying that she is indeed funny (which she is). It comes off as a compliment: 'My friend Briana is funny.'

    On the other hand, the second version with litotes says something different. With 'She's not unfunny,' it's like I'm saying that she barely has a sense of humor, and with the changing of a few words, a compliment becomes an insult.
  35. Saying the opposite of what you mean is a type of understatement called ________.
    SARCASM.
  36. Using double negatives in a sentence such as 'It's not unlikely for me to have chocolate for lunch' is an example of
    • LITOTES 
    • (LITE-O-TEES)
  37. ______________ or alternate, inoffensive ways of saying something that might be considered improper or even taboo.
    euphemisms
  38. DEFINE euphemisms
    inoffensive ways of saying something that might be considered improper or even taboo.
  39. What Is Symbolism?

    Symbolism is the use of objects, people or colors to represent larger ideas, adding a layer of deeper meaning to a work of art.

    Symbolism can range from metaphors and other comparisons - like 'a raisin in the sun' - to story elements like setting and characters - such as caged birds symbolizing feeling confined by gender roles.
  40. What Is Imagery?

    Imagery is descriptive language that appeals to all the senses in order to make writing more interesting and meaningful.

    Imagery can be employed symbolically, such as the different imagery representing pregnancy in Sylvia Plath's poem, 'Metaphors.'

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