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Which nutrient is most often taken for granted?
Which nutrient is required in greater quantity than any other orally ingested substance?
Water makes up how much of the animals body weight at birth?
65 to 85%
Water makes up how much of the animals body weight at maturity?
45 to 60%
How is water found in the animal body?
Intra or extracellularly
What percentage of water is found intracellularly?
Where is water typically found when stored intracellularly (within cells)?
Mostly in muscles and skin
What percentage of water is found extracellularly (outside cell)?
Where is water typically found when stored extracellularly?
- a) Blood plasma (water accounts for 90 to
- 95% of the blood)
b) Interstitial fluids (among/between cells)
c) Urinary/digestive tracts
What are the 6 functions of water in the body?
- 1) hydrate and maintain shape of body cells
- 2) Universal solvent for chemical reactions
- 3) Transportations of nutrients and excretions
- 4) Body temp regulation
- 5) Lubricates and cushions joints and organs in the body
- 6) Removal of body wastes
What percentage of water do tissues contain?
What percent of body fat and protein can animals lose and still survive?
What percentage of water can an animal lose before they are subjected to kidney failure or subsequently death?
12 to 15% body water
By being a universal solvent, water does what?
provides a medium for life processes.
eg NaCl must ionize (dissolve) to be used.
What nutrients and excretions does water help transport?
Oxygen, CO2, and glucose in the blood
What are the various properties of water that allow accumulation of heat, ready transfer of heat, and loss of large amounts of heat on vaporization?
- -High specific heat
- -High thermal conductivity
- -High latent heat vaporization (amount of heat
- required to vaporize)
What is water a component of, that helps lubricate and cushion joints and organs in the body cavity?
- -Joint fluids
- -Spinal fluids
- -Embryonic fluids
How does water aid in the removal of body waste?
- -Urea (excessive N) Via urine and by sweating
What are the effects of deficiency or restrictions of water not the animal?
- 1.Reduced feed intake and reduced
- 2.Weight loss due to dehydration.
- 3.Increased excretion of nitrogen and
- electrolytes such as sodium and potassium.
What are the sources of water to an animal?
- 1) drinking water
- 2) Water contained in or on feed
- 3) Metabolic water
What percent of grains contain water?
from below 8% up to more than 30% water
What percent of forages contains water?
Below 5% in a dry hay to more than 90% water in a lush young grass
What effect does precipitation or dews on feed have with water consumption?
Can decrease water consumption
Metabolic water derives from what?
derived from nutrient metabolism and resulting cellular oxidation of nutrients.
Glucose,fat or amino acids can be metabolized to form what?
CO2 and H2O
Metabolic water can account for how much of total water intake?
5 to 10%of total H2O intake.
Under extreme conditions such as in some desert animals, what can make up the major or sole source of H2O?
What is an example of an animal that does not require very much water intake?
- The kangaroo rat
- -never drinks because it has a very low rate of H2O loss, having no sweat glands and a low evaporation rate from expired air.
What is an example of an animal that must drink water in order to maintain hydrated?
How specifically does it meet it's water requirement?
- The pack rat
- -has a very high H2O requirement, which it meets by consuming succulent vegetation such as cactus.
What are are factors the effect water intake/ requirement?
- 1) Size/age of animal
- 2)Dry matter consumption
- 3)Production status of animal
- 4)activity/work level
- 5)metabolic rate
- 6)dietary factors
- 7)water quality
- 9) Species differences based on the nature of the nitrogenous end products from protein metabolism
- 10) nature of digestive tract
What happens to the percentage of body water as the animal ages?
What kind of relationship does this have with fat?
- -percentage of body H2O decreases
- - has an inverse relationship with body fat
DM intake is _____ correlated with H2O intake
What species of animal requires more water per unit of body weight than any other species?
- -Dairy cows producing milk
- (if water for a dairy cow that is producing milk is limiting, then we see a decrease in the overall milk production)
How do active animals differ in water requirement?
more active animals require more water
What are the factors affecting metabolic rate?
How do they affect water requirements?
- a)Hibernating animals – decrease their water requirement
- b) High strung animals – require more water
What are the dietary factors affecting water consumption?
- -High water content of feed (High moisture diets provide a fair amount of the animal’s requirement)
- -High fiber, salt or protein (all of these factors increase drinking of water.)
How do excess salts affect water requirement?
increases thirst and increases need to flush excessive salt via kidneys
How do high protein diets affect water requirements?
- High protein diets increase water intake to rid body of excess N via urea in the
What quality is most of the water supply in the world?
- supply of water in many parts of the world is saline or has excess salts of other
How much total dissolved solids should good water have?
less than 2500 mg/liter of total dissolved solids.
What are some materials that can be toxic in water?
Minerals, Nitrates, Pesticides and other agricultural chemicals, and blue-green algae
high saline H2O may contain sufficient amounts of _____, ______, ______, _____, _____, and _____ to exert toxic effects.
calcium, magnesium, sodium,bicarbonate, chloride and sulfate ions to exert toxic effects
Are sulfates or chlorides more of a problem in water?
Water with > 1 g/liter of sulfates can cause what?
Where is nitrate contamination in water common?
- -High concentration of animals (feedlot)
- -Heavy fertilization of fields with manure or nitrogenous fertilizers
- -Contamination from septic tanks
In the Rumen: Nitrates can be converted to _____.
- (but nitrates bind with hemoglobin and prevent oxygen transport) (limits Oxygen and results in deficiency) (if severe can result in death, or anoxia)
how much ppm of nitrates in water is hazardous?
How much can cause acute toxicity?
- -greater than 1500ppm
How do pesticides and agricultural chemicals enter water supply?
- -Agricultural runoff
- -Accidental spills
- -Faulty waste-disposal system
What are the most toxic agricultural runoffs in water?
Organophosphates are the most toxic agricultural runoffs
What is an example of an organophosphate?
Where is blue-green algae found?
lakes and stock watering ponds
What does blue-green algae produce?
potent toxins that can affect livestock in different ways.
How does blue-green algae affect pigs?
- causes vomiting, coughing, muscle tremors
- and rapid breathing can occur if there is toxicity of BG algae
How does blue-green algae affect dairy cows?
In dairy, you can see liver damage and can lose appetite and become victim of anorexia and eventually can lead to brain damage or some form of dementia
How does hot weather affect water consumption?
increased water consumption
How does cold weather affect water consumption?
decreased water consumption
What are the three examples of species differences, based on the nature of the
nitrogenous end products from protein metabolism?
Urea, uric acid, and ammonia
Most mammals secrete what as a form of nitrogenous end products?
What is urea toxic to?
what does this mean?
toxic to the tissues unless in dilute solution, thus large amounts of water are required to dilute it
Why do birds have a lower water requirement than mammals (in terms of nitrogenous waste)?
because the excrete uric acid in a nearly solid form
What do fish excrete directly from the gills?
do they have a high water intake? why?
- -Many have such low water requirements that they never drink
Do ruminants or non ruminants have a higher water requirement? Why?
Ruminants require large quantities of H2O to form a suspension of ingesta in the rumen and therefore have a greater requirement for H2O than nonruminant species.
What do feedstuffs with high water-absorbing characteristics cause?
what is an example?
- cause the animal to have a greater H2O requirement.
- - such as wheat bran and dried forage
What is the expected water consumption of dairy cattle in a temperate climate (l/d)?
38 to 110 (approx. 10 to 30 gal/d)
What is the expected water consumption of beef cattle in a temperate climate (l/d)?
22 to 66 (approx. 5 to 15 gal/d)
What is the expected water consumption of horses in a temperate climate (l/d)?
30 to 45 (approx. 7 to 10 gal/d)
What is the expected water consumption of swine in a temperate climate (l/d)?
11 to 19 (approx. 3 to 5 gal/d)
What is the expected water consumption of sheep/goats in a temperate climate (l/d)?
4 to 15 (approx. 1 to 4 gal/d)
What is the expected water consumption of poultry in a temperate climate (l/d)?
.2 to .6 (approx. 1 to 2 cups/d)
What are the four ways water is lost from the body?
- c)Vaporization from the lungs and dissipation through the skin
- d)Sweat from the sweat glands
What must be supplied to animals at all times?
Fresh, clean water! Most important but overlooked nutrient.