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How does renin affect blood pressure?
stimulates renin angiotensin aldoesterone--> BP elevated through kidney
How does NE raise blood pressure?
NE increases heart rate-->vasoconstriction--> raise blood pressure
Hemostasis: Two systems that raise blood pressure
Renin system and administrating norepinephrine
If blood pressure was too high, what decreases NE?
stimulate alpha 2
What should be administered when you want to keep your heart rate in a certain range (60-80)?
lowers blood glucose by releasing insulinused for diabetics, hyperglycemia
Diagnosis: Phentolamine and Phenoxybenzamine
- used to treat pheochromocytoma (adrenal gland tumor)
- blocks NE and reduces blood pressure
Prevention: Cefazoin, Cefotoxin
antibiotic or surgical phophylaxiskills anaerobes , used for presurgery
- used for edematous legs
- blocks resorption of Na in kidneys
Cure: (reverses the process)
- increase force of contraction, decrease time between contractions
- used for CHF, reverse the condition
Examples of Impure Placebo
ASA, B12, vitamin C
Two placebos are:
lactose capsule and sodium chloride injection
Frequent Causes of Failure of Treatment
- failure of compliance
- failure to achieve effective level
- produce toxic effects
An example for 'failure to achieve effective level' of treatment is:
- cephalosporin (1st generation vs. 3rd generation)
- 1st generation: gram+
- 3rd generation: gram-
drug that gets activated in the liver
Active metabolite, Benzodiazephines
break down productcauses sedation, drowsinessyou want the least amount of active metabolites as much as possible
What gets absorbed in gastric mucosa?
What gets absorbed in intestine mucosa?
Examples of weak acids that get absorbed in the gastric mucosa are:
ASA, Na phenobarbital, aspirin
Examples of weak bases that get absorbed in the intestinal mucosa are:
Quinidine HCl or sulfate
To pass membranes (absorption), the drug must be:
unionized, lipid soluble
To bind to a receptor (distribution), the drug must be:
ionized, water soluble
if a drug has HCl or sulfate drug, what can we assume the pka of the drug to be and where would it get absorbed?
if a drug has Na or phenobarbital, what can we assume the pka of the drug to be and where would it get absorbed?
weak acid-->gastric mucosa
What drug is used as a presynthetic for surgery, a short-acting barbiturate, extremely soluble, and has the most rapid onset of action with the shortest duration of action?