Pharmacology Exam 1

Card Set Information

Pharmacology Exam 1
2013-11-26 12:57:39

pharmacology exam 1
Show Answers:

  1. How does renin affect blood pressure?
    stimulates renin angiotensin aldoesterone--> BP elevated through kidney
  2. How does NE raise blood pressure?
    NE increases heart rate-->vasoconstriction--> raise blood pressure
  3. Hemostasis: Two systems that raise blood pressure
    Renin system and administrating norepinephrine
  4. If blood pressure was too high, what decreases NE?
    stimulate alpha 2
  5. What should be administered when you want to keep your heart rate in a certain range (60-80)?
  6. Diagnosis: Glaipizide
    lowers blood glucose by releasing insulinused for diabetics, hyperglycemia
  7. Diagnosis: Phentolamine and Phenoxybenzamine
    • used to treat pheochromocytoma (adrenal gland tumor)
    • blocks NE and reduces blood pressure
  8. Prevention: Cefazoin, Cefotoxin
    antibiotic or surgical phophylaxiskills anaerobes , used for presurgery
  9. Treatment: opioid
    blocks pain
  10. Treatment: hydrochlorothiazide
    • dieuretic
    • used for edematous legs
    • blocks resorption of Na in kidneys
  11. Cure: (reverses the process)
    • increase force of contraction, decrease time between contractions
    • used for CHF, reverse the condition
  12. Examples of Impure Placebo
    ASA, B12, vitamin C
  13. Two placebos are:
    lactose capsule and sodium chloride injection
  14. Frequent Causes of Failure of Treatment
    • failure of compliance
    • failure to achieve effective level
    • produce toxic effects
  15. An example for 'failure to achieve effective level' of treatment is:
    • cephalosporin (1st generation vs. 3rd generation)
    • 1st generation: gram+
    • 3rd generation: gram-
  16. Prodrug
    drug that gets activated in the liver
  17. Active metabolite, Benzodiazephines
    break down productcauses sedation, drowsinessyou want the least amount of active metabolites as much as possible
  18. What gets absorbed in gastric mucosa?
    weak acids
  19. What gets absorbed in intestine mucosa?
    weak bases
  20. Examples of weak acids that get absorbed in the gastric mucosa are:
    ASA, Na phenobarbital, aspirin
  21. Examples of weak bases that get absorbed in the intestinal mucosa are:
    Quinidine HCl or sulfate
  22. To pass membranes (absorption), the drug must be:
    unionized, lipid soluble
  23. To bind to a receptor (distribution), the drug must be:
    ionized, water soluble
  24. if a drug has HCl or sulfate drug, what can we assume the pka of the drug to be and where would it get absorbed?
    weak base-->intestines
  25. if a drug has Na or phenobarbital, what can we assume the pka of the drug to be and where would it get absorbed?
    weak acid-->gastric mucosa
  26. What drug is used as a presynthetic for surgery, a short-acting barbiturate, extremely soluble, and has the most rapid onset of action with the shortest duration of action?