Exercise Physio LECTURE 2.txt

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Exercise Physio LECTURE 2.txt
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  1. Describe the responses of expired ventilation rate (VE), oxygen uptake rate (VO2) and carbon dioxide production rate (VCO2) when going from rest to submaximal and maximal workloads
  2. How does training affect these responses?
  3. What causes the breakaway in VE and VCO2 at anaerobic threshold?
  4. What are the primary muscle fiber types and energy sources used prior to and after anaerobic threshold?
  5. Why does a trained individual have a lower VE, VO2, and VCO2 than an untrained individual during submaximal exercise?
  6. Why does a trained individual have a higher VE, VO2, and VCO2 than an untrained individual during maximal exercise?
  7. How does the depth of tidal volume and rate of breathing differ between a trained and untrained person during exercise?
  8. Why does this difference exist?
  9. How is alveolar ventilation rate for a given expired ventilation rate affected by this difference?
  10. What is meant by the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) and carbon dioxide (PCO2) and how do they relate to the concept of diffusion gradient?
  11. What factors affect PO2 and PCO2?
  12. What is primarily responsible for the drop in PO2 and increase in PCO2 when gong from atmospheric air to air in the alveoli?
  13. Know and understand how PO2 and PCO2 change in arterial and venous blood.
  14. When are PO2 and PCO2 the highest and lowest in the blood?
  15. How much time is available for gas exchange in the alveoli and muscle capillaries during rest and exercise?
  16. Is the time available for gas exchange usually a limiting factor in performance? Explain
  17. What factors affect pulmonary diffusion capacity?
  18. Does pulmonary diffusion capacity increase when going from rest to submaximal and maximal workloads? Why?
  19. Why do trained persons have a greater pulmonary diffusion capacity at rest as well as during submaximal and maximal workloads?
  20. What factors determine the total amount of oxygen in the blood?
  21. What is the primary way that oxygen is transported in the blood?
  22. What is the main or primary factor determining the amount of hemoglobin saturated with the oxygen?
  23. How does the sigmoidal shape of the hemoglobin oxygen dissociation curve affect oxygen loading in the lungs and oxygen availability to the muscle tissue?
  24. What is meant by the statement that hemoglobin is an allosteric protein?
  25. What does the concept of cooperativity mean in regards to hemoglobin and the binding to and the unloading of oxygen from hemoglobin?
  26. What causes the hemoglobin oxygen dissociation curve to shift to the right?
  27. How does the shift of the hemoglobin oxygen dissociation curve to the right affect the loading of hemoglobin with oxygen in the lung capillaries and the unloading of oxygen from hemoglobin in the muscle tissue capillaries?
  28. How is the availability of oxygen to muscle tissue affected by the partial pressure of oxygen, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and the hydrogen ion concentration in the muscle tissue and muscle tissue capillaries?
  29. During acute high altitude exposure, maximal oxygen uptake rate decrease by about 10% for every 1,500 meter of elevation. What is the first major adaptation to high altitude that occurs after about 48 hours of high altitude exposure, which significantly increase oxygen availability to the muscle tissue?
  30. What is epogen?
  31. How does it affect red blood cell and hemoglobin concentrations, the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood, and viscosity of the blood?
  32. With regards to circulatory responses, know and understand how the pressure gradient and peripheral resistance affect cardiac output.
  33. Know and understand how the pressure gradient changes in the arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins.
  34. What is the best overall indicator of the pressure gradient or the driving force of the blood?
  35. Know and understand what factors enhance the venous return of blood.
  36. Know and understand what factors affect peripheral resistance.
  37. How can cardiac output be increase or decreased?
  38. How can peripheral resistance be increase or decreased?
  39. During progressive, incremental exercise, how does the distribution of blood flow to the working muscles and other inactive areas of the body change?
  40. During progressive, incremental exercise, what happens to overall peripheral resistance?
  41. Know and understand how oxygen extraction (arterial - venous oxygen diffference or A - VO2 difference) , stroke volume, heart rate, and the oxyen carrying capacity of the blood affect an individual's ability to meet the oxygen demand of the body.
  42. What factors affect the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood?
  43. Know and understand in detail the Fick equation: oxygen uptake rate is equal to cardiac output (stroke volume x heart rate) X oxygen extraction (arterial venous oxygen difference).
  44. How does acute exercise and long-term training affect the components of the Fick equation?
  45. When going from rest on up through submaximal and maximal workloads, know and understand how blood pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate, oxygen extraction, expired ventilation rate, oxygen uptake rate, lactic acid production rate and muscle blood flow change.
  46. How do stroke volume and heart rate affect cardiac output?
  47. Know and understand how end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume affect stroke volume.
  48. Know and understand what factors affect end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes
  49. How does training affect these factors affect end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes?
  50. Know and understand how cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate, oxygen extraction, expired ventilation rate, oxygen uptake rate, lactic acid production rate and muscle blood flow of a trained person differ from an untrained person at rest as well as during submaximal and maximal exercise.
  51. Know and understand how blood volume, absolute and relative hemoglobin concentrations, capillary and mitochondrial density in muscle tissue, ventricular volume and wall thickness, myoglobin concentration, oxygen enzyme concentrations, and myocardial efficiency of a trained person differs from an untrained person.
  52. Why does endurance training potentially result in bradycardia?
  53. In terms of training specificity, know and understand how endurance and strength training affects ventricular volume and wall thickness.
  54. Know and understand what increases cerebral cortex activity (anticipation), kinesthetic feedback, chemoreceptor responses (PO2, PCO2, and pH), catecholamine release, and temperature affect ventilation, heart rate, stroke volume, and the circulatory blood vessels (i.e., vasoconstriction versus vasodialation).
  55. Know and understand how altitude, oxygen enrichment, smoking, carbon monoxide exposure, blood doping, and ingestion of epogen (EPO) affects the oxygen carrying of the blood and other cardiorespiratory responses
  56. Know and understand how carbon dioxide is transported in blood. What is the principle (main) method by which carbon dioxide is eliminated from the muscle tissue? Why?
  57. How do the PO2 and PCO2 in the alveoli and alveolar capillaries as well as other factors affecting the pulmonary diffusion capacity affect the removal of carbon dioxide from the blood in the lungs?
  58. How is lactic acid buffered in the blood?
  59. The buffering of lactic acid ultimately results in the formation of what substances or products?
  60. Know and understand the physiological concept of anaerobic threshold.
  61. What causes the breakaway in expired ventilation rate, carbon dioxide production rate, and lactic acid production rate at anaerobic threshold?
  62. What are the primary muscle fiber types and energy sources used prior to and after anaerobic threshold?
  63. Know and understand how knowledge regarding anaerobic threshold can be used in fitness appraisal, endurance training, and endurance performance
  64. How can a person perceptually detect anaerobic threshold?
  65. Why does a trained person have a higher anaerobic threshold than an untrained person?
  66. Known and understand the three basic principles of exercise physiology (i.e., what fundamental mechanisms determine maximal force or tension of a muscle contraction, speed of muscle contraction, and continuation of muscle contraction).
  67. Know and understand the concepts of oxygen deficit and debt, including the alactacid and lactacid phases of oxygen debt.
  68. What is meant by oxygen uptake kinetics?
  69. What factors determine the maximal oxygen deficit capacity?
  70. Why is oxygen debt greater than oxygen deficit?
  71. How are phosphagen stores replenished during alactacid phase of the oxygen debt?
  72. How is lactic acid degraded and removed from the body during the alactacid phase of the oxygen debt?
  73. How long does it take to replenish the phosphagen stores and remove lactic acid using a passive recovery?
  74. How long does it take to remove lactic acid using an active recovery?
  75. When using an active recovery, what should the intensity of exercise be?
  76. How do you know when you are at a proper exercise intensity when using an active recovery?
  77. Know and understand the different pacing strategies and when it is appropriate to use the different strategies
  78. Know and understand the performance and training implications underlying interval (sprint) training
  79. Know and understand the three basic training principles, fundamental program design considerations, and three basic program phases or seasons of training
  80. What is periodization of cycle training?
  81. Know and understand the primary sources of energy during exercise of various time lengths
  82. At what point in time during maximal exercise efforts is energy production approximately 50% anaerobic and 50% aerobic?
  83. Know and understand the basic interval training guidelines
  84. What are the appropriate work times, number of reps and sets, work/rest ratio, and type of recovery for developing the phosphagen, anaerobic glycolytic, and oxidative energy systems?
  85. What is the appropriate target heart rates expressed as a percentage of maximal heart rate for the work period as well as the recovery periods between reps and sets?
  86. What are the appropriate endurance training intensities for developing general fitness and competitive preparation when using heart rate to monitor intensity?
  87. Could ventilation/respiration rate be used to measure exercise intensity? EXPLAIN
  88. How could an athlete know if the intensity of endurance training is greater than anaerobic threshold?
  89. Know and understand the duration and frequency of exercise guidelines for endurance training
  90. Know and understand the definitions of power, strength and muscular endurance
  91. Know and understand the definitions, strengths and weaknesses of isometric, concentric, eccentric, and isokinetic training
  92. Know and understand the basic training guidelines for isometric, eccentric, isokinetic, circuit and muscular endurance training
  93. Know and understand the base, hypertrophy, strength, and strength & power phases of concentric training
  94. Know and understand the general recommendations for order and choice of exercises
  95. What causes acute and chronic muscle soreness?
  96. What accounts for the greater lean body mass and strength in males compared to females following puberty?
  97. What are the potential side effects of the exogenous intake of steroids?
  98. What are the coronary heart disease risk factors?
  99. How does exercise affect the risk factors and what are the potential affects of exercise on the coronary heart disease?
  100. Know and understand in detail the effects of resistance training, sprint training, and endurance training on body mass, percent body fat, fat mass ,lean body mass, body circumferences, muscle fiber size, muscle fiber size and number, ratio of fast-twitch fiber area to slow-twitch fiber area, sarcoplasm and other components of muscle cells...
  101. Know and understand in detail the effects of , bone mineralization, connective tissue strength and mass, neuromuscular factors, mitochondrial and capillary densities, anaerobic and aerobic enzyme levels and activities...
  102. Know and understand in detail the effects of intramuscular stores of phosphagens and glycogen stores, intramuscular stores of fat, maximal oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold, resting heart rate, resting blood pressure, ventricular wall thickness and volume, contractility and stroke of the heart...
  103. Know and understand in detail the effects of myocardial efficiency, blood lipid profiles, glucose tolerance (i.e., diabetic tendencies, self-concept and self-esteem and performance)
  104. How does endurance training and longer duration interval (sprint) training affect resting, submaximal, and maximal expired ventialtion rate, carbon dioxide production rate, oxygen uptake rate, pulmonary diffusion capacity, cardiac output, stroke volume heart rate, blood lactate levels, absolute blood volume and hemoglobin levels, and relative hemoglobin levels?
  105. How does the addition of endurance training to a strength training program affect strength performance and gains?
  106. How does the addition of strength training to an endurance training program affect endurance performance?
  107. Can fast-twitch muscle fibers be converted to slow-twitch muscle fibers and can slow-twitch muscle fibers be converted to fast-twitch muscle fibers? EXPLAIN
  108. How does aging affect body weight and composition (i.e., fat weight and lean body weight), physical work capacity, maximal oxygen uptake rate, muscular strength, balance, flexibility, reaction and movement times, oxygen carrying capacity of the blood, and lung volumes and functioning?
  109. What are the recommendations of ACSM for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength in adults?
  110. How does exercise affect the aging process and the risk of age-related diseases such as coronary heart disease and cancer?

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